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Introduction to Muslim beliefs
What does the Muslim world believe? For many in the world,
Islam, Christianity and Judaism worship the same God, in
different ways. Though there are similarities between all three
religions, when we examine Islam in the light of Biblical
and Christianity, we see the beliefs and views of Islam
are far different.
To understand the Muslim world, knowing what they believe is
tantamount to knowing who they are. Even within the Muslim
world, the Sunnis and the Shites
conflict go back to the 4th Caliph, Ali, and are
being played out today in Middle East. The conflict between
Islam and the west, like the conflict between Sunni and Shia can
be traced back to the beliefs of Islam.
The basis of Islamic belief is primarily the Quran, “the
revelation” Mohammad claimed to receive from angel Gabriel who
met with Mohammad over the 23-years of his “call” (A.D.
610-632). In addition to the Quran, comes the collections known
as Hadith (Traditions), the Hadith are the sayings and
traditions of Mohammad, from his early time, until after his
death. These collections were compiled by various people, who
then arranged them into volumes, allowing Muslims to gain a
deeper understanding to the Quran and Mohammad’s life, from the
“traditions”. Their are several collections of Hadith, some have
greater credibility then others. The Hadith collected by
Sahih Al-Bukhari is reputed as the most authentic of and
credible, others include Sahih Muslim and Sunan Abu-Dawud.
Since Mohammad is viewed in Islam as the perfect example of
humanity, Muslims look to his life and sayings as a source of
understanding. The Hadiths provide the background information
on many Surahs (Chapters) of the Quran, giving direction to its
In this paper we will examine the basic beliefs of Islam,
regarding God, Creation, Angels, Satan, Jinn, Humanity and
The name of God in Islam is Allah, Allah is the central
focus of the Quran, Allah is the creator of the universe and
man. Surah 59:22-24 defines the nature of Allah,
22. He is
Allah, than whom there is no other God, the Knower of the
invisible and the visible. He is the Beneficent, the Merciful.
23. He is Allah, than whom there is no other God, the Sovereign
Lord the Holy One, Peace, the Keeper of Faith, the Guardian, the
Majestic, the Compeller, the Superb. Glorified be Allah from all
that they ascribe as partner (unto Him). 24. He is Allah, the
Creator, the Shaper out of naught, the Fashioner. His are the
most beautiful names. All that is in the heavens and the earth
glorifieth Him, and He is the Mighty, the Wise. Surah 59:22-24.
To become a
Muslim, is to acknowledge Allah as the only God and Mohammad as
his prophet. The phrase, known as the Shahadah (To bear
witness) “La ilaha illa Allah, Muhammad rasul Allah”,
means “There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is Allah’s
Apostle”, by repeating these words, the unbeliever turns to
believer. To be a Muslim, one just needs to acknowledge Allah
as the one God, and Muhammad as his prophet.
word “Allah” means in Arabic, Al (The) Illah
(God), hence the term, the term Allah, in the Shahadah,”
there is no god” but The God (al-lah). The term for
Allah predates Mohammad, since Mohammad’s
father’s name Abdallah, demonstrates this point. His name
means “Allah’s slave”. The term Allah has been the subject of
debate, by many students of Islam. Some argue, Allah was the
moon god, who was the chief god of the Arabic pantheon. For
example, the Moon is the symbol over the mosque, giving some
credence to the argument, they argue, Hubal deity of Mecca was
then called “The God”, Al-ilah (Allah) by Mohammad.
name Allah predates Mohammad, the term was used by pagans who
defined Allah as “the god. Allah was known as the
supreme-god of the Arabic pantheon, in fact the name Al-lat,
means the goddess and was applied to one of the “Daughters of
Allah”, in a controversial episodes,
during Mohammad’s early call in Mecca. The Kaba, had 360 idols,
Allah was known as “the god” the supreme god over the idols of
the Kaba, superior to the other god’s of Arabia, since he was
supreme. According to some he was considered the father of the
Muslims claim Arabia turned away from the “true” God, to
paganism, demonstrating its fallen nature before Mohammad.
Mohammad was to restore Arabia to the “true” God, Allah. Norman
Geisler quoting Samuel Zwemer, author of The Muslim Doctrine
of God writes,
establishes beyond the shadow of doubt that even the pagan
Arabs, before Mohammed’s time, knew their chief god by the name
of Allah and even, in a sense, proclaimed His unity. In pre-islamic
literature, Christian of pagan, ilah is used for any god
and Al-ilah (contracted to Allah) …Among the pagan Arabs
this term denoted the chief god of their pantheon, the Kaaba,
with its three hundred and sixty idols… As final evidence, we
have the fact that centuries before Mohammed the Arabian Kaaba,
or temple at Mecca, as called Beit-Allah, the house of God andBeit-el-Alihet, the house of the idols or gods.”
used by Daniel, in the Aramaic portion of scripture referring to
the “Most High God”, Daniel 5:21 uses the term illayyll[
(Most High) elahh, hhla
(God) to refer to
the supreme God, which would have been understood by Daniel’s
Babylonian audience, as the supreme God. Daniel distinguished
the God of Israel from the pantheon of East as the “Most High
its easy to see, the term “Allah” could designate the
“most-high” God, demonstrating the concept of the Supreme God
goes back in Arabian history and tradition. The concept of
Yahweh, God Most High, very well could have survived in the
hearts of Ishmaels descendents, who settled in Arabia. Much
like the term El was used by the Canaanites to define the
supreme god, who was paired with Asherah his consort.
The term, El was the generic term for God in Semitic languages,
the term was applied to Yahweh the God of Abraham, Isaac
and Jacob, the True God, as opposed to the pantheon created by
applied the term “Allah” to the god of the Arabia, who he saw as
the same, as the God of the Jews and Christians, the God of
Abraham. This chief god of the Arab pantheon known as Allah,
became the only God, the same God as the Jews and Christians.
This was the God Mohammad proclaimed to the Arabic people.
Islam is seen as the one eternal God who created the heavens and
the universe, He alone is God. Surah 112, answers the question
to who is God, declaring He is One. The Oneness of God is a
major focus of Islam, since Islam considers Christians as
assigning partners with God, in the doctrine of the trinity, by
believing Jesus Christ is God incarnated.
1. Say: He is
Allah, the One!
2. Allah, the eternally Besought of all!
3. He begetteth not nor was begotten.
4. And there is none comparable unto Him.
is the creator of the universe, he is not to be associated with
Originator of the heavens and the earth! How can He have a
child, when there is for Him no consort, when He created all
things and is Aware of all things?102. Such is Allah, your Lord.
There is no God save Him, the Creator of all things, so worship
Him. And He taketh care of all things. 103. Vision comprehendeth
Him not, but He comprehendeth (all) vision. He is the Subtile,
the Aware. Surah 6:101-103
partners with God is the greatest of all sins, The Quran, in
Surah 4:116 warns against such a sin.
116. Lo! Allah pardoneth not
that partners should be ascribed unto him. He pardoneth all save
that to whom He will. Whoso ascribeth partners unto Allah hath
wandered far astray. Surah 4;116
ninety-nine names of Allah
of Allah is best demonstrated in what is known as the
ninety-nine names of Allah, seventy-three of these names are
found in the Quran while twenty-six are not. The first name is
Allah, the next four are,
the First, who was before the beginning (Surah 57:3)
the Last, who will still be after all has ended (Surah 57:3)
the Contriver, who contrived the whole art of creation (2:117)
the Maker, from whose hand we all come (Surah 59;24)
clearly teaches Allah created the heavens, the earth and the
universe, as to the exact number of days they were created in is
not completely clear. Surah 32;4, says they were created in six
days, while Surah 41:9, 12 say Allah created them in two days.
4. Allah it
is Who created the heavens and the earth, and that which is
between them, in six Days. Then He mounted the throne. Ye
have not, beside Him, a protecting friend or mediator. Will ye
not then remember? Surah 32:4
9. Say (O
Muhammad, unto the idolaters): Disbelieve ye verily in Him Who
created the earth in two Days, and ascribe ye unto Him
rivals? He (and none else) is the Lord of the Worlds.12. Then He
ordained them seven heavens in two Days and inspired in
each heaven its mandate; and we decked the nether heaven with
lamps, and rendered it inviolable. That is the measuring of the
Mighty, the Knower. Surah 42: 9,12
to the creation of the heavens, earth and animal world, Allah
also created three types of beings, Angels, Jinn
and Humans, which interact on the spiritual plain.
To be a Muslim, requires the belief in angels. Muhammad is
quoted as referring to the necessity of faith in angels, in the
Bukhari Hadith we read,
One day while
the Prophet was sitting in the company of some people, (The
angel) Gabriel came and asked, "What is faith?" Allah's Apostle
replied, 'Faith is to believe in Allah, His angels, (the)
meeting with Him, His Apostles, and to believe in Resurrection."(Volume
1, Book 2, Number 47
a British Islamic scholar writes on the Muslim view of Angels,
imagery of the Koran the angels are represented generally as
God’s messengers. They are…His creatures and servants and
worship Him continually; they bear up His Throne, descend with
His Decrees on the Night of Power, record men’s actions, receive
their souls when they die, and witness for or against them at
the Last Judgment, and guard the gates of Hell. At the battle of
Badr they assisted the Muslims against the vastly superior
forces of the Meccans.
There are four archangels in Islam; the most well known among
them is Gabriel, who according to Muhammad gave the
message of the Quran to Mohammad, from Heaven. Since Gabriel is
viewed as the angel of revelation, he is also regarded as the
Holy Spirit in Islam. The archangel Michael is the
angel of providence, who guards the Jews. The two other
archangels identified in Islam are Israfil who summons to
the resurrection and Izra’il the angel of death.
97. Say (O
Muhammad, to mankind): Who is an enemy to Gabriel! For he it is
who bath revealed (this Scripture) tothy heart by Allah's leave,
confirming that which was (revealed) before it, and a guidance
and glad tidings to believers; 98. Who is an enemy to Allah,
and His angels and His messengers, and Gabriel and Michael!
Then, lo! Allah (Him- self) is an enemy to the disbelievers.
Surah 2:97-98 ( Pickthall)
Those who are familiar the TV series, I Dream of Genii,
or the Genie in the Lamp from the tales of the Arabian knights,
might not be aware of the role Geniis (Jinn) play in Islam and
According to Islam, the most well known Jinn is Satan, who
rebelled against the command of Allah.
(remember) when We said unto the angels: Fall prostrate before
Adam, and they fell prostrate, all save Ibis. He was of the
Jinn, so he rebelled against his Lord's command. Will ye
choose him and his seed for your protecting friends instead of
Me, when they are an enemy unto you? Calamitous is the exchange
for evil doers! Surah 18:50
Jinn are beings who are both good and bad; like humanity, they
have the freedom to choose. Jinn, according to the Quran, were
created from the fire (Surah 15:26-27, 55:15). Jinn, also like
men were created to serve Allah (Surah 51:56). For example, in
the Quran, Jinn were allies of Solomon’s armies (Surah 18:37).
Jinn heard the Quran, confirming it as the teaching of truth,
like the teachings of Moses (Surah 46:29-30).
29. And when
We inclined toward thee (Muhammad) certain of the Jinn, who
wished to hear the Qur’an and, when they were in its presence,
said: Give ear! and, when it was finished, turned back to their
people, warning. 30. They said: O our people! Lo! we have heard
a Scripture which hath been revealed after Moses, confirming
that which was before it, guiding unto the truth and a right
road. Surah 46:29-30
Satan plays a prominent role in the Quran and Islam; called
Shaitan and Ibis, the names Shaitan is derived from
the Hebrew and Iblis from the Greek diabolos.
According to the Quran, Satan is the leader of the evil Jinn,
who refused to obey Allah. What led to Satan fall is described
in several places in the Quran.
38:71-77, describes the fall of Satan (Iblis) as follows,
71. When thy
Lord said unto the angels: lo! I am about to create a mortal out
72. And when I have fashioned him and breathed into him of My
spirit, then fall down before him prostrate, 73. The angels fell
down prostrate, every one.
74. Saving Iblis, he was scornful and became one of the
75. He said: O Iblis! What hindereth thee from falling prostrate
before that which I have created with both My hands? Art thou
too proud or art thou of the high
76. He said: I am better than him. Thou createdst me off fire,
whilst him Thou didst create of clay. 77. He said: Go forth from
hence, for lo! Thou art outcast, Surah 38:71-77 (Picthall)
according to the Quran failed to worship Adam after he was
created, the angels worshipped Adam, but Satan because he was a
Jinn, and proud refused to worship. The issue raised here is
why would Allah, have Satan worship something he created, rather
then worship Allah?
Quran, Adam is the first created human being, who was appointed
as viceroy or caliph of the earth, by Allah. Man was created
from sounding clay and molded into shape (Surah 15:26). After
man was created, Satan along with all the angels were commanded
to worship the creation of Allah, Adam. Satan’s refusal exposed
his pride and the fact he was a Jinn.
30. And when
thy Lord said unto the angels: Lo! I am about to place a viceroy
in the earth, they said: wilt Thou place therein one who will do
harm therein and will shed blood, while we, we hymn Thy praise
and sanctify Thee? He said: Surely I know that which ye know
31. And He taught Adam all the names, then showed them to the
angels, saying: Inform me of the names of these, if ye are
32. They said: Be glorified! We have no knowledge saving that
which Thou hast taught us. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Knower,
33. He said: O Adam! Inform them of their names, and when he had
informed them of their names, He said: Did I not tell you that I
know the secret of the heavens and the earth? And I know that
which ye disclose and which ye hide.
34. And when We said unto the angels: Prostrate yourselves
before Adam, they fell prostrate, all save Iblis He demurred
through pride, and so became a disbeliever.
35. And We said: O Adam! Dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden,
and eat ye freely (of the fruits) thereof where ye will; but
come not nigh this tree lest ye become wrongdoers.
36. But Satan caused them to deflect there from and expelled
them from the (happy) state in which they were; and We said:
Fall down, one of you a foe unto the other! There shall be for
you on earth a habitation and provision for a tune.
to worship or fall prostrate before man, seems to violate the
principle of God alone is worthy of worship. Why would God
command the angels to worship man, the creation of his hands,
and violate His own law?
attempted to answer this paradox by implying that the angels
only bowed and did not worship Adam, others contend their
worship was toward man’s direction, but was directed to God,
Adam only served as the direction or Qibla, like the Kaaba.
not believe humanity is born with a sin nature, but people
choose to sin, by listening to Satan, who causes people to go
astray. Soon after Adam’s creation, and the fall of Iblis
(Satan) who refused to worship Adam, Satan asked God for
permission to try and test humanity from before and behind,
until the resurrection.
12. He said:
What hindered thee that thou didst not fall prostrate when I
bade thee? (Iblis) said: I am better than him. Thou createdst me
of fire while him Thou didst create of mud. 13. He said: Then go
down hence! It is not for thee to show pride here, so go forth!
Lo! thou art of those degraded. 14. He said: Reprieve me till
the day when they are raised (from the dead). 15. He said: Lo!
thou art of those reprieved. 16. He said : Now, because Thou
hast sent me astray, verily I shall lurk in ambush for them on
Thy Right Path. 17. Then I shall come upon them from before
them and from behind them and from their right bands and from
their left hands, and Thou wilt not find most of them beholden
(unto Thee). 18. He said: Go forth from hence, degraded,
banished. As for such of them as follow thee, surely I will fill
hell with all of you. Surah 7:12-18 (Pickthall)
and his wife were placed in the Garden, Satan then made his move
deceiving them, and making them rebel against their Lord.
Satan whispered to them that he might manifest unto them that
which was hidden from them of their shame, and he said: Your
Lord forbade you from this tree only lest ye should become
angels or become of the immortals. 21. And he swore unto them
(saying): Lo! I am a sincere adviser unto you. 22. Thus did he
lead them on with guile. And when they tasted of the tree their
shame was manifest to them and they began to hide (by heaping)
on themselves some of the leaves of the Garden. And their Lord
called them, (saying): Did I not forbid you from that tree and
tell you: Lo! Satan is an open enemy to you? 23. They said : Our
Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If Thou forgive us not and have
not mercy on us, surely we are of the lost! 24. He said: Go down
(from hence), one of you a foe unto the other. There will be for
you on earth a habitation and provision for a while. 25. He
said: There shall ye live, and there shall ye die, and thence
shall ye be brought forth.
Surah 7:20-25 (Pickthall)
Muslim view, this is the cause of sin, not a “sin nature”, but
the testing of Satan, who tries humanity. The difference
between the Muslim and Christian views regarding sin is very
clear. Muslim’s do not see here the introduction of a sin
nature, but merely a forgivable mistake by Adam. While
Christianity views this as the fall of man, causing the
need for a Savior-Redeemer, Jesus Christ to redeem
humanity from its fallen state.
view this as the point Adam and Eve entered earth, after their
fall in Paradise, which caused them to be sent to the earth (Vs.
24). Adam and Eve are seen only as making a mistake, which was
pardoned by Allah. Their offspring like them have to choose to
reject Satan deceptions.
there are two words for prophet, rasul, means “one who is
sent”, and nabi, “one who carries information and carries
good news from God”. Rasul is derived from the Greek
word Apostolos, and nabi is identical to the
Hebrew word meaning the same.
scholars are of the opinion that prophets are either completely
sinless, or at least free from all major sins or faults. Also,
before the prophets were called they were noted for their good
qualities, like Mohammad.
the Quran, every group of people received a messenger, by whom
they will be judged. These messengers proclaimed the same basic
message, to serve God and turn from evil.
47. And for
every nation there is a messenger. And when their messenger
cometh (on the Day of Judgment) it will be judged between them
fairly, and they will not be wronged. Surah 10:47
verily We have raised in every nation a messenger,
(proclaiming): Serve Allah and shun false gods. Then someof them
(there were) whom Allah guided, and some of them (there were)
upon whom error had just hold. Do but travel in the land and see
the nature of the consequence for the deniers! Surah 16:36
of each prophet is the same according to Islam, therefore
Muslims accept all the earlier prophets and their message.
Prophets of the Quran
community had a prophet, Muslim tradition has numbered the
prophets in the world, throughout history at 124,000. The Quran
however, depending on how one counts, lists between twenty-five
and twenty-eight prophets, with the majority being of a biblical
84. And We
bestowed upon him Isaac and Jacob; each of them We guided; and
Noah did We guide aforetime; and of his seed (We guided) David
and Solomon and Job and Joseph and Moses and Aaron. Thus do We
reward the good. 85. And Zachariah and John and Jesus and Elias.
Each one (of them) was of the righteous. 86. And Ishmael and
Elisha and Jonah and Lot. Each one of them did We prefer above
(Our) creatures, Surah 6:84-86 (Pickthall)
163. Lo! We
inspire thee as We inspired Noah and the prophets after him, as
We inspired Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the
tribes, and Jesus and Job and Jonah and Aaron and Solomon, and
as we imparted unto David the Psalms; 164. And messengers We
have mentioned unto thee before and messengers We have not
mentioned unto thee; and Allah spake directly unto Moses;
Messengers of good cheer and off warning, in order that mankind
might have no argument against Allah after the messengers. Allah
was ever Mighty, Wise. Surah 4:163-165 (Pickthall)
prophets considered of the highest order are Mohammad (The
apostle of God), Noah (The preacher of God), Abraham (The friend
of God), Moses (the speaker with God) and Jesus (the word of
the other prophets
stories of the prophets in Quran, the prophets essentially
deliver their message and are rejected by the people. The
majority of the people, reject the messages of their prophet, a
few accept, God then judges the people via earthquake, fire or
flood, the faithful are rewarded and spared. Mohammad is seen
as mirroring the biblical prophets, being rejected by his
people, Mecca and the Quresh tribe, later in Medina the Jews and
the Christians would also reject Mohammad. According to Islam,
the Jews and Christians rejected Mohammad, like they rejected
the earlier prophets. The message of these earlier prophets was
lost, only to be restored by Mohammad, who is the last prophet.
How was the
message of the earlier prophets lost? Over time the message is
forgotten and the people stray from the truth, such as the case
for the Jews and the Christians according to Islam. They have
strayed from the truth delivered by their prophets, ie. Moses
and Jesus, therefore God sent Mohammad to deliver the same
message, which the earlier prophets delivered.
Islam, the message of Jesus, Moses and the other prophets was
the same as Mohammad’s, however over time, the message was
diluted and the words of the prophets lost. For this reason,
Mohammad is the “seal of the prophets”, restoring the message of
Allah for the world, before judgment, Mohammad is the last
relations with the Jews and the Christians clearly change in the
Quran over time. At first in Mecca and early in Medina,
Mohammad expected his favorable comments to bring him converts
among the Christians and Jews. Both groups reject his message
62. Lo! those
who believe (in that which is revealed unto thee, Muhammad), and
those who are Jews, and Christians, and Sabaeans whoever
believeth in Allah and the Last Day and doeth right surely their
reward is with their Lord, and there shall no fear come upon
them neither shall they grieve. Surah 2:162
46. And argue
not with the People of the Scripture unless it be in (a way)
that is better, save with such of them as do wrong; and say: We
believe in that which hath been revealed unto us and revealed
unto you; our God and your God is One, and unto Him we
surrender. Surah 29:46
rejected by the Jews and Christians, attitude in Quran changes,
from one of acceptance to one of open hostility. The Jews and
Christians are seen as conspiring against God, by even changing
the words in the Book (the Bible) to prevent Mohammad from being
accepted as prophet.
51. O ye who
believe! Take not the Jews and Christians for friends. They are
friends one to another. He among you who taketh them for friends
is (one) of them. Lo! Allah guideth not wrongdoing folk.
Surah 5:51 (Pickthall)
85. And whoso
seeketh as religion other than the Surrender (to Allah) it will
not be accepted from him, and he will be a loser in the
Hereafter. Surah 3:85 (Pickthall)
against such of those who have been given the Scripture as
believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, and forbid not that which
Allah hath forbidden by His messenger, and follow not the
religion of truth, until they pay the tribute readily, being
brought low. Surah 9:29 (Pickthall).
both Christianity and Judaism have been set aside because they
broke their covenants with God. The Christians associate Jesus
with God (Shirk) and the Jews associate Ezra in the same way.
The Jews however, do not believe Ezra is the son of God, so
where Mohammad received this information and included it in the
Quran is in question.
30. And the
Jews say:. Ezra is the son of Allah, and the Christians say: The
Messiah is the son of Allah. That is their saying with their
mouths. They imitate the saying of those who disbelieved of old.
Allah (himself) fighteth against them. How perverse are they!
break with God came when the “people of the book”, the Jews and
Christians rejected the last and final prophet, Mohammad. (Surah
45:16-17; 5:14, 57:16)
110. Ye are
the best community that hath been raised up for mankind. Ye
enjoin right conduct and forbid indecency; and ye believe in
Allah. And if the People of the Scripture had believed it had
been better for them. Some of them are believers; but most of
them are evil livers. Surah 3:110
The Books of
the Jews and Christians
earlier “revelations” Mohammad looks favorable to the books of
the Jews and Christians, the Torah and Injil
(Gospel). He refers to them “the book of God”, “the Word of
God”, “a light and guidance to man”, “a decision for all
matters, and a guidance and mercy,” “the lucid Book”. He even
challenges his message, the Qura, to be compared with the
revelations of the Jews and Christians,
94. And if
thou (Muhammad) art in doubt concerning that which We reveal
unto thee, then question those who read the Scripture (that was)
before thee. Verily the Truth from thy Lord hath come unto thee.
So be not thou of the waverers. Surah 10:94 (Pickthall)
Christians and Jews are charged with tampering and with God’s
word by concealing the word.
71. O People
of the Scripture! Why confound ye truth with falsehood and
knowingly conceal the troth? 72. And a party of the People of
the Scripture say: Believe in that which hath been revealed,
unto those who believe at the opening of the day, and disbelieve
at the end thereof, in order that they may return; 73. And
believe not save in one who followeth your religion. Say (O
Muhammad): Lo! the guidance is Allah's guidance. that any one is
given the like of that which was given unto you or that they may
argue with you in the presence of their Lord. Say (O Muhammad):
Lo! the bounty is in Allah's hand. He bestoweth it on whom He
will. Allah is All Embracing, All Knowing. 78. And Lo! there
is a party of them who distort the Scripture with their tongues,that ye may think that what they say is from the Scripture,
when it is not from the Scripture. And they say: It is from
Allah, when it is not from Allah; and they speak a lie
concerning Allah knowingly.
Surah 3:71-73,78 (Pickthall)
against the Torah and Injil (Gospel)
scholars today, refer to the Torah and Gospel mentioned in the
Quran as different then the Torah and Gospel in possession
today. They claim they the originals have been mixed up, and the
guidance in the original lost. Therefore, the Word of God has
not been preserved either with the Jews or Christians, but with
the Muslims, in the Quran.