1. History of the Covenant People
Abraham 2100 BC
The story of the Jewish people
begins with the Patriarch Abraham. Abraham was 75 years old
when he is called by God to leave the country of his father who
had earlier moved from the city of Ur to Haran. The Lord tells
Abraham to go to the land of Moriah now known as Israel or
the LORD had said to Abram: “Get out of your country, From your
And from your father’s house, To a land that I will show you.
I will make you a great nation; I will bless you
And make your name great;
And you shall be a blessing.
will bless those who bless you,
And I will curse him who curses you;
And in you all the families of the earth shall be blessed.”
When Abraham arrives in Moriah The
Lord makes a promise to Abraham.
the Lord appeared to Abram and said, “To your descendants I will
give this land.” And there he built an altar to the LORD, who
had appeared to him.
Abraham would later have a son
Ishmael through his Egyptian servant Hagar when he was 86 years
old. Still later when Abraham was 100 he had a child by his 90
year old wife Sarah fulfilling a promise by the Lord to Abraham.
God would bless Ishmael but the covenant that God established
with Abraham would be through Sarah and not Hagar.
God said: “No, Sarah your wife shall bear you a son, and you
shall call his name Isaac; I will establish My covenant with
him for an everlasting covenant, and with his descendants
after him. 20And as for Ishmael, I have heard
you. Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and
will multiply him exceedingly. He shall beget twelve princes,
and I will make him a great nation. 21But My
covenant I will establish with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear
to you at this set time next year.” 22Then He
finished talking with him, and God went up from Abraham.
Ishmael would later be sent to away
to protect the rights of Isaac’s inheritance.
In a test of Abraham’s faith God
asked Abraham to take Isaac to Mt. Moriah and sacrifice him to
the Lord. As Abraham was about to slay the child The Angel of
the Lord prevented the sacrifice. The Angel of the Lord would
declare to Abraham.
Myself I have sworn, says the LORD, because you have done this
thing, and have not withheld your son, your only son—17blessing
I will bless you, and multiplying I will multiply your
descendants as the stars of the heaven and as the sand which
is on the seashore; and your descendants shall possess the
gate of their enemies. 18In
your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed, because
you have obeyed My voice.”
Jacob 2000 BC
Isaac would later have two sons
Jacob and Esau the covenant blessing would pass to Jacob Isaac's
Let peoples serve you,
And nations bow down to you
Be master over your brethren, And let your mother’s sons bow
down to you.
Cursed be everyone who curses you, And blessed be
those who bless you!”
After Jacob is blessed he escapes
his brother Esau’s anger by going to Haran. Where his
grandfather Abraham was from. There Jacob marries Leah and
Rachel. Two sisters, and daughters of Labin his mother’s
brother. From Leah and Rachel and their handmaids Bilhah and
Zilpah Jacob has 13 children, 12 sons and 1 daughter.
On the way back to the land of
Moriah Jacob is renamed Israel after coming face to face with
He said, “Your name shall no longer be called Jacob, but £Israel;
for you have struggled with God and with men, and have
Jacob asked, saying, “Tell me Your name, I pray.” And He said, “Why is
it that you ask about My name?” And He blessed him there.30So
Jacob called the name of the place £Peniel: “For I
have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved.” Genesis
Joseph sold 1910 BC
the second youngest son is sold into Egypt as a slave at the age
of 17 by his brothers. But in Egypt rises to role of prime
minister by the age of 30. Jacob’s remaining sons flee to
Egypt because of famine in the land of Moriah. There Joseph is
found by his brothers and family. Joseph offers them the
security of Egypt. And the descendents of Jacob settle in the
land of Goshen. During the next 400 years they multiply from 70
to over 1 million souls.
But new Egyptian rulers see Israel’s
growing descendents as a potential threat to Egypt. To deal with
the threat the male children of Israel were ordered destroyed by
Pharaoh. But the baby Moses was placed in the water by his
mother in a basket to escape the fate of death. Baby Moses is
rescued from the water and is raised in the house of Pharaoh's
Later when Moses was about 40 he
flees into the desert of Midian to escape Pharaoh after Moses
kills an Egyptian who was mistreating a Hebrew slave. Moses
spends the next 40 years in the desert taking care the sheep of
Jethro his father-in-law. At the age of 80 God sends him back
into Egypt to rescue his people Israel and lead them back into
the land of Moriah.
Exodus beings 1446 BC
therefore, behold, the cry of the children of Israel has come to
Me, and I have also seen the oppression with which the Egyptians
oppress them. 10Come now, therefore, and I will send
you to Pharaoh that you may bring My people, the children of
Israel, out of Egypt.”
Moses returns to Egypt and with 10
plagues from God on Egypt Pharaoh lets Israel go with Moses
into the wilderness of Sinai. This is known as the Exodus
In Sinai God establishes a covenant
with the children of Israel. A covenant of blessing and
it shall come to pass, if you diligently obey the voice of the
LORD your God, to observe carefully all His commandments which I
command you today, that the LORD your God will set you high
above all nations of the earth. 2And all these
blessings shall come upon you and overtake you, because you obey
the voice of the LORD your God:
it shall come to pass, if you do not obey the voice of the LORD
your God, to observe carefully all His commandments and His
statutes which I command you today, that all these curses will
come upon you and overtake you:
Israel rebels against God in the
desert of Sinai and the nation spends the next 40 years
wandering in the wilderness. After the generation that rebelled
dies Joshua is appointed the successor to Moses. Moses is also
prevented from entering the land of promise because of his sin.
Israel takes possession of the land
Joshua leads Israel into the land
of Canaan/Moriah by conquering the inhabitants of the land.
The land conquered and unconquered is divided between the tribes
of Israel. The descendents of Israel receive their land based
on their descent from the 12 son’s of Jacob.
For the next 400 years Israel is
ruled by Judges not by Kings. As they people rebelled God would
send judgment but in their despair He would send Judges to give
them direction and rescue them. Gideon would rescue them from
the Midianites, Samson from the Philistines, Jephthah from the
Ammonites and Deborah from the Canaanites. Samuel was the last
judge of Israel the people would then want a king like the other
Israel wants a King 1050 BC
The Lord heard the people’s request
for a King and tells Samuel to not feel bad because Israel was
rejecting God and not Samuel.
the LORD said to Samuel, “Heed the voice of the people in all
that they say to you; for they have not rejected you, but they
have rejected Me, that I should not reign over them.
God then appoints Saul from the
tribe of Benjamin to become King over Israel in 1050 BC. But
Saul’s disobedience causes his kingship to be withdrawn and
given to a Shepard boy David son Jesse of the tribe of Judah.
becomes King in 1025 BC after Saul and his son Jonathan die in
battle. David later wants to build a House for God but God thru
Nathan the prophet tells David he cannot but his son will build
a House. David is also promised by God that through his line the
Messiah would come and rule on David’s throne forever.
your days are fulfilled and you rest with your fathers, I will
set up your seed after you, who will come from your body, and I
will establish his kingdom. 13He shall build a
house for My name, and I will establish the throne of his
kingdom forever. 14I will be his Father, and he
shall be My son. If he commits iniquity, I will chasten him with
the rod of men and with the blows of the sons of men.
2 Samuel 7:12-14
Solomon builds the Temple 970 BC
David’s son builds the Temple of God on the land his father
purchased from Ornan. On the same location where Abraham was
going to sacrifice his son Isaac. On this location only would
Israel be allowed to sacrifice and worship the Lord.
Solomon began to build the house of the LORD at Jerusalem on
Mount Moriah, where £the LORD had appeared to
his father David, at the place that David had prepared on the
threshing floor of Ornan£ the Jebusite
2 Chronicles 3:1
When the temple was complete and
dedicated to God the “Glory of the Lord” filled the Temple. God
accepted the Temple as His place forever.
LORD said to him: “I have heard your prayer and your
supplication that you have made before Me; I have consecrated
this house which you have built to put My name there forever,
and My eyes and My heart will be there perpetually
But if Israel disobeyed and turned
away from God the Temple would be destroyed and become a proverb
amongst the people.
8Andas for this house, which is exalted, everyone who
passes by it will be astonished and will hiss, and say, ‘Why has
the LORD done thus to this land and to this house?’
1 Kings 9:8
The Kingdom Divided 926 BC
After the death of Solomon his son
Rehoboam succeeded him as King. During his reign the northern
10 tribes rebelled and became a separate kingdom. Judah and
Benjamin became known as Judah, the southern kingdom.
Northern Kingdom in captivity 722 BC
In 722 BC the Assyrian Kingdom
attacked the northern kingdom of Israel and carried them into
captivity. The Lord was fulfilling the promises of the Covenant
curses for disobedience.
the ninth year of Hoshea, the king of Assyria took Samaria and
carried Israel away to Assyria, and placed them in Halah and by
the Habor, the River of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes.7For
so it was that the children of Israel had sinned against the
LORD their God, who had brought them up out of the land of
Egypt, from under the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt; and they
had feared other gods, 8and had walked in the
statutes of the nations whom the LORD had cast out from before
the children of Israel, and of the kings of Israel, which they
The Assyrian kingdom was defeated by
the Babylon at the battle of Carcemesh 609 BC. The Babylonians
became the new masters of the land.
Babylonian captivity 605 BC
The Southern Kingdom of Judah also
sinned against God but they were spared an Assyrian victory. In
the days of Hezekiah, Judah was supernaturally delivered from
king Sennacherib’s attack of Jerusalem in 690 BC. Judah
continued to sin after they were delivered from the Assyrian
army. God then allowed the Babylonians to attack and defeat
First in 605 BC when Daniel was
carried into the land of Babylon. Again in 597 BC when Ezekiel
was taken as captive. And finally in 587 when the city and
temple and temple were destroyed in 587 BC.
In 597 BC God laments about the sin
taking place in the Temple itself when Ezekiel is allowed to
17And He said
to me, “Have you seen this, O son of man? Is it a trivial
thing to the house of Judah to commit the abominations which
they commit here? For they have filled the land with violence;
then they have returned to provoke Me to anger. Indeed they put
the branch to their nose.
Ten years later the Temple is
destroyed by the Babylonian armies as punishment for the sins in
Cyrus the Great 539 BC
Cyrus the great the head of the
Persian- Median Empire defeats the kingdom of Babylon. Daniel
is given a high position in the Persian kingdom. Cyrus has a
policy of restoration, he allows the captives of Israel to
return to their land. He also allows the rebuilding of the
Temple work begins 536 BC
Under the leadership of Ezra the
Temple is rebuilt but the Temple is not as glorious as Solomon’s
Temple. The Temple is completed in 516 BC.
and Jerusalem 444 BC.
The Persian ruler Artaxerexes allows
Nehemiah his cupbearer to oversee the reconstruction of the city
Alexander the Great 333 BC
The armies of Alexander the great
conquer the Persian kingdom.
After the death of Alexander in 323
BC his kingdom is divided between his 4 generals.
Ptolemy I took control of Egypt
and the Seleucus I ruled over Syria. These generals would be
the founders of the succeeding kingdoms that would fight for
the control of Palestine for the next 156 years.
The Old Testament is translated into
the Greek language during the reign of Phtolemy of Philadelphus
(285-247 BC) in a version known as the Septuagint.
Antiochus Epiphanies 175 BC
Greek Seleucid ruler Antiochus
Epiphanies rules Syria from about 175 BC to about 164 BC. He
reigns over Judah and tries to destroy the Jewish religion. He
has large quantities of the Torah destroyed (the first five
books of the modern Bible). He also defiles the Temple by
placing an image of Jupiter in the Temple and offering a pig as
Maccabean Kingdom 166-63 BC
Maccabean revolt opens a way for Jewish independence in
Jerusalem and the surrounding area. The revolt is led by
Mattathias and his five sons, Judas (Maccabeus), Jonathan,
Simon, John and Eleazar. The era of independence runs from about
conquer Israel 63 BC
is asked to solve the conflict between two rivals to the
Maccabean Kingdom. Roman General Pompey invades and Judaea
became a part of the province of Syria in 63 BC (Josephus, BJ,
Hyrcanus, brother of the last king, remaines
high priest invested with judicial as well as sacerdotal
later Antony and Octavius give
Palestine (40 BC) as a kingdom to Herod, surnamed the Great,
although his rule did not become effective until 3 years later.
His sovereignty was upheld by a Roman legion
stationed at Jerusalem.
Jesus 0-33 AD
Jesus is born claims to be Messiah,
Son of God and is crucified by Roman solders after he is
rejected by the High Priest for his claims of Messiahship.
Titus destroys Jerusalem 70 AD
The Roman general Titus destroys the
city of Jerusalem and his legion burn the Temple. The gold from
the Temple melts and each stone is thrown down as the solders
search for melted gold. Jews are exiled throughout the Roman
Bar Kochva rebellion 135 AD
In 135 AD, the Romans, under
Hadrian, kill an estimated 580,000 Jews to suppress the Bar
Kochva uprising. The Romans ran a plow over Jerusalem to
completely destroy the Holy City. The Romans ban the Jews from
living in Jerusalem.
Rome becomes Byzantium
Christianity spreads within the
Roman empire and the Empire coverts to Christianity as the State
religion under Constantine. An Eastern capital is established
in Byzantium and the Capital city is Constantinople after the
emperor. The descendents of Israel are dispersed throughout the
world. To escape persecution many flee to Arabia and Persia.
Rise of Islam 632-1918
In the deserts of Arabia Mohammed
Ibn Abdallah claims to be prophet a God. Living in Mecca he
proclaimed his identity to the inhabitants who rejected at first
and latter tried to kill him.
He fled to Yathrub latter known as
Medina where he was welcomed by the Arab tribes as a prophet.
The city founded by 3 Jewish tribes who rejected him as a
prophet. From 622 to 630 the Jewish tribes of Medina were
After Mohammed’s death in 638 AD
his followers conquer the land of Palestine from the Byzantine
The Dome of the Rock was built over
the site of the Jewish Temple as a sign of Islam being the final
and true religion. Also Mohammed claimed to ascend to Heaven
from the top of Mt. Moriah.
Muslim armies conquer North Africa,
and enter Europe from southern Spain. The Muslim armies advance
in Europe is stopped at the battle of Tours in 732 AD by Charles
le Martin (The Hammer), the grand father of Charlemagne. The
last Muslim strongholds are defeated in Europe by 1492 AD.
As Europe is converted to
Christianity there is a movement to rescue the Holy land from
the Muslim invaders.
The crusaders of Europe conquer
Jerusalem from their Arab Muslim rulers. The Crusader rule over
Jerusalem is short lived as the Muslim again conquer the land.
As the Mongols expand in Asia the
Turks are pushed westward toward the Middle East. Eventually
the Ottoman succeed Arab rule in the Middle East. The Ottoman’s
conquer Constantinople and rename the city Istanbul.
The declining Ottoman Empire allies
itself with Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany and is defeated by the US
and its allies.
A movement founded by Theodore
Herzel with a desire of founding a Jewish state in Palestine,
and the return of the Jewish people to the land. The first
Zionist congress was held in 1897 in Bezl Switzerland. Growing
anti-Semitism in Europe led many Jews to start emigrating to
Palestine in the 1850’s.
At first Britain offered 6000 square
miles of uninhabited land in Uganda. But the Zionist held out
November 2nd, 1917 Dear Lord
I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on
behalf of His Majesty's Government, the
following declaration of sympathy with Jewish
Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to,
and approved by, the Cabinet." His Majesty's
Government view with favor the establishment in
Palestine of a national home for the Jewish
people, and will use their best endeavors to
facilitate the achievement of this object, it
being clearly understood that nothing shall be
done which may prejudice the civil and religious
rights of existing non-Jewish communities in
Palestine, or the rights and political status
enjoyed by Jews in any other country." I should
be grateful if you would bring this declaration
to the knowledge of the Zionist
With nationalistic and territorial
pressures rising in the 1900’s Germany allied itself with the
Ottoman empire. These pressures exploded into World War I.
Britain in the need of financial
support turns to Sir Edmond Rothschild who helps support the
British war effort. In return the Balfour Declaration is made.
The Ottoman empire loses the war
along with Germany. The Turkish empire is broken up with the
allies taking over control of Ottoman territory. Britain takes
over administration of Palestine via a UN Mandate in 1923.
Britain carves up the territories
into Arab and Turkish nations. But the Palestine issue remains
Britain does not follow thru on
Balfour promise in 1917 to Sir Edmund Rothschild.
During the 1930s and 1940s, Jews are persecuted
by Hitler. Many move to Palestine. The Holocaust - the Nazi's
genocide of 6 million Jews - increases international sympathy
for the Zionist quest to re-establish a Jewish homeland.
Partition of Palestine
The UN Mandated the partition of
Palestine into a Jewish and Arab States.
The Arab nations resisted the
creation of any Jewish state in Palestine. They declared there
would be war on the day of its creation.
1948 (May 14) : On May 14, 1948,
the Jews declare independence for Israel. This is the first time
in 2900 years that Israel is both independent and united.
(Israel became a divided country about 2900 years ago, and lost
its independence about 2600 years ago).
1948 (May 15) : Within hours of
Israel's declaration of independence, the surrounding Arab
countries launch an invasion of Israel.
1949 : Israel prevails in the
Arab-Israeli war of 1948-9. Israeli forces recapture more of the
ancient Jewish homeland, expanding the size of Israel by about
After mounting tensions in the area,
Gamel Abdel Nasser seized the Suez Canal from European ownership
Israel then makes a preemptive strike.
In October of 1956 Israel invaded
the Sinai Peninsula to destroy Arab military bases there. In 5
days the Israeli army captured Gaza, Rafah, Al-Arish taking
thousands of prisoners and occupying the area east of the Suez
Canal. In December after a joint Anglo-French intervention, a
United Nations Emergency Force was stationed in the area..
1967 Six day war
Arab and Israeli forces clashed for
the third time June 5-10, 1967 in what is known as the 6 day
In early 1967 Syrian bombardments of
Israeli villages had been intensified. When the Israeli Air
Force shot down six Syrian MiG planes in reprisal, Nasser
mobilized his forces near the Sinai border. During this war
Israel eliminated the Egyptian air force and established air
superiority. The war cost the Arabs the Old City of Jerusalem,
the Sinai and the Gaza Strip, the Jordanian territory west of
the Jordan River known as the West Bank and the Golan Heights,
on the Israeli-Syrian border.
1973 Yom Kippur War
On October 6th, during the Jewish
holy day of Yom Kippur Israel was attacked by the Egypt across
the Suez Canal and by Syria on the Golan heights.
Israel pushed its way into Syrian
territory and encircled the Egyptian Third Army by crossing the
Suez Canal and establishing forces on the west bank.
Israel signed cease fire agreements
with Egypt on Jan. 18th, 1974 and with Syria on May 31st, 1974.
1982 Lebanon War
Less then six weeks after Israel’s
withdrawal form the Sinai. Israel invaded Lebanon and encircled
Beirut in effort to pursue PLO fighters operating out of the
country. Israel withdrew after a the PLO evacuated the city
under a multinational force.