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What does Islam (Muslims) believe?


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Introduction to Muslim beliefs  

            What does the Muslim world believe?  For many in the world, Islam, Christianity and Judaism worship the same God, in different ways.  Though there are similarities between all three religions, when we examine Islam in the light of Biblical Judaism[1] and Christianity, we see the beliefs and views of Islam are far different.

            To understand the Muslim world, knowing what they believe is tantamount to knowing who they are.  Even within the Muslim world, the Sunnis and the Shites[2] conflict go back to the 4th Caliph, Ali, and are being played out today in Middle East.  The conflict between Islam and the west, like the conflict between Sunni and Shia can be traced back to the beliefs of Islam.

            The basis of Islamic belief is primarily the Quran, “the revelation” Mohammad claimed to receive from angel Gabriel who met with Mohammad over the 23-years of his “call” (A.D. 610-632). In addition to the Quran, comes the collections known as Hadith (Traditions), the Hadith are the sayings and traditions of Mohammad, from his early time, until after his death.  These collections were compiled by various people, who then arranged them into volumes, allowing Muslims to gain a deeper understanding to the Quran and Mohammad’s life, from the “traditions”. Their are several collections of Hadith, some have greater credibility then others.  The Hadith collected by Bukhari[3], Sahih Al-Bukhari  is reputed as the most authentic of and credible, others include Sahih Muslim and Sunan Abu-Dawud.

            Since Mohammad is viewed in Islam as the perfect example of humanity, Muslims look to his life and sayings as a source of understanding.  The Hadiths provide the background information on many Surahs (Chapters) of the Quran, giving direction to its greater meaning.   

            In this paper we will examine the basic beliefs of Islam, regarding God, Creation, Angels, Satan, Jinn, Humanity and Prophets.                                 


            The name of God in Islam is Allah, Allah is the central focus of the Quran, Allah is the creator of the universe and man.  Surah 59:22-24 defines the nature of Allah, 

22. He is Allah, than whom there is no other God, the Knower of the invisible and the visible. He is the Beneficent, the Merciful. 23. He is Allah, than whom there is no other God, the Sovereign Lord the Holy One, Peace, the Keeper of Faith, the Guardian, the Majestic, the Compeller, the Superb. Glorified be Allah from all that they ascribe as partner (unto Him). 24. He is Allah, the Creator, the Shaper out of naught, the Fashioner. His are the most beautiful names. All that is in the heavens and the earth glorifieth Him, and He is the Mighty, the Wise.  Surah 59:22-24. (Pickthall)[4] 


To become a Muslim, is to acknowledge Allah as the only God and Mohammad as his prophet.  The phrase, known as the Shahadah (To bear witness) “La ilaha illa Allah, Muhammad rasul Allah”, means “There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is Allah’s Apostle”, by repeating these words, the unbeliever turns to believer.  To be a Muslim, one just needs to acknowledge Allah as the one God, and Muhammad as his prophet.   

The name “Allah” 

     The word “Allah” means in Arabic, Al (The) Illah (God), hence the term, the term Allah, in the Shahadah,” there is no god” but The God (al-lah).  The term for Allah predates Mohammad, since Mohammad’s[5] father’s name Abdallah, demonstrates this point. His name means “Allah’s slave”.   The term Allah has been the subject of debate, by many students of Islam. Some argue, Allah was the moon god, who was the chief god of the Arabic pantheon. For example, the Moon is the symbol over the mosque, giving some credence to the argument, they argue, Hubal deity of Mecca was then called “The God”, Al-ilah (Allah) by Mohammad.

      The name Allah predates Mohammad, the term was used by pagans who defined Allah as “the god. Allah was known as the supreme-god of the Arabic pantheon, in fact the name Al-lat, means the goddess and was applied to one of the “Daughters of Allah”, in a controversial episodes[6], during Mohammad’s early call in Mecca.  The Kaba, had 360 idols, Allah was known as “the god” the supreme god over the idols of the Kaba, superior to the other god’s of Arabia, since he was supreme.  According to some he was considered the father of the god Hubal.

      Muslims claim Arabia turned away from the “true” God, to paganism, demonstrating its fallen nature before Mohammad. Mohammad was to restore Arabia to the “true” God, Allah.  Norman Geisler quoting Samuel Zwemer, author of The Muslim Doctrine of God writes,  

“But history establishes beyond the shadow of doubt that even the pagan Arabs, before Mohammed’s time, knew their chief god by the name of Allah and even, in a sense, proclaimed His unity.  In pre-islamic literature, Christian of pagan, ilah is used for any god and Al-ilah (contracted to Allah) …Among the pagan Arabs this term denoted the chief god of their pantheon, the Kaaba, with its three hundred and sixty idols… As final evidence, we have the fact that centuries before Mohammed the Arabian Kaaba, or  temple at Mecca, as called Beit-Allah, the house of God andBeit-el-Alihet, the house of the idols or gods.”[7]           

The term used by Daniel, in the Aramaic portion of scripture referring to the “Most High God”, Daniel 5:21 uses the term illayyll[ (Most High) elahh, hhla (God) to refer to the supreme God, which would have been understood by Daniel’s Babylonian audience, as the supreme God. Daniel distinguished the God of Israel from the pantheon of East as the “Most High God”.  

Therefore, its easy to see, the term  “Allah” could designate the “most-high” God, demonstrating the concept of the Supreme God goes back in Arabian history and tradition. The concept of Yahweh, God Most High, very well could have survived in the hearts of Ishmaels descendents, who settled in Arabia.  Much like the term El was used by the Canaanites to define the supreme god, who was paired with Asherah his consort.  The term, El was the generic term for God in Semitic languages, the term was applied to Yahweh the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, the True God, as opposed to the pantheon created by men.

Mohammad applied the term “Allah” to the god of the Arabia, who he saw as the same, as the God of the Jews and Christians, the God of Abraham.  This chief god of the Arab pantheon known as Allah, became the only God, the same God as the Jews and Christians. This was the God Mohammad proclaimed to the Arabic people.

Nature of Allah 

1. Oneness of Allah

Allah in Islam is seen as the one eternal God who created the heavens and the universe, He alone is God.  Surah 112, answers the question to who is God, declaring He is One. The Oneness of God is a major focus of Islam, since Islam considers Christians as assigning partners with God, in the doctrine of the trinity, by believing Jesus Christ is God incarnated.

Surah 112. Al-Ikhlas

1. Say: He is Allah, the One!
2. Allah, the eternally Besought of all!
3. He begetteth not nor was begotten.
4. And there is none comparable unto Him.

Allah alone is the creator of the universe, he is not to be associated with anything. 

101. The Originator of the heavens and the earth! How can He have a child, when there is for Him no consort, when He created all things and is Aware of all things?102. Such is Allah, your Lord. There is no God save Him, the Creator of all things, so worship Him. And He taketh care of all things. 103. Vision comprehendeth Him not, but He comprehendeth (all) vision. He is the Subtile, the Aware.  Surah 6:101-103 

2. Shirk,

Assigning partners with God is the greatest of all sins, The Quran, in Surah 4:116 warns against such a sin.

116. Lo! Allah pardoneth not that partners should be ascribed unto him. He pardoneth all save that to whom He will. Whoso ascribeth partners unto Allah hath wandered far astray. Surah 4;116[8]


3. The ninety-nine names of Allah 

The nature of Allah is best demonstrated in what is known as the ninety-nine names of Allah, seventy-three of these names are found in the Quran while twenty-six are not. The first name is Allah, the next four are,

2. al-Awwal, the First, who was before the beginning (Surah 57:3)

3. al-Akhir,  the Last, who will still be after all has ended (Surah 57:3)

4. al-Badi, the Contriver, who contrived the whole art of creation (2:117)

5. al-Bari, the Maker, from whose hand we all come (Surah 59;24)



Earth and Heavens

The Quran clearly teaches Allah created the heavens, the earth and the universe, as to the exact number of days they were created in is not completely clear.  Surah 32;4, says they were created in six days, while Surah 41:9, 12 say Allah created them in two days. 

4. Allah it is Who created the heavens and the earth, and that which is between them, in six Days. Then He mounted the throne. Ye have not, beside Him, a protecting friend or mediator. Will ye not then remember? Surah 32:4 

9. Say (O Muhammad, unto the idolaters): Disbelieve ye verily in Him Who created the earth in two Days, and ascribe ye unto Him rivals? He (and none else) is the Lord of the Worlds.12. Then He ordained them seven heavens in two Days and inspired in each heaven its mandate; and we decked the nether heaven with lamps, and rendered it inviolable. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Knower. Surah 42: 9,12 

Angels, Jinn and Humans 

In addition to the creation of the heavens, earth and animal world, Allah also created three types of beings, Angels, Jinn and Humans, which interact on the spiritual plain.   


            To be a Muslim, requires the belief in angels.  Muhammad is quoted as referring to the necessity of faith in angels, in the Bukhari Hadith we read, 

One day while the Prophet was sitting in the company of some people, (The angel) Gabriel came and asked, "What is faith?" Allah's Apostle replied, 'Faith is to believe in Allah, His angels, (the) meeting with Him, His Apostles, and to believe in Resurrection."(Volume 1, Book 2, Number 47 Bukhari)


H.A.R Gibb, a British Islamic scholar writes on the Muslim view of Angels, 

In the imagery of the Koran the angels are represented generally as God’s messengers. They are…His creatures and servants and worship Him continually; they bear up His Throne, descend with His Decrees on the Night of Power, record men’s actions, receive their souls when they die, and witness for or against them at the Last Judgment, and guard the gates of Hell. At the battle of Badr they assisted the Muslims against the vastly superior forces of the Meccans.[9]


            There are four archangels in Islam; the most well known among them is Gabriel, who according to Muhammad gave the message of the Quran to Mohammad, from Heaven.  Since Gabriel is viewed as the angel of revelation, he is also regarded as the Holy Spirit in Islam. The archangel Michael is the angel of providence, who guards the Jews. The two other archangels identified in Islam are Israfil who summons to the resurrection and Izra’il the angel of death.  

97. Say (O Muhammad, to mankind): Who is an enemy to Gabriel! For he it is who bath revealed (this Scripture) tothy heart by Allah's leave, confirming that which was (revealed) before it, and a guidance and glad tidings to believers;  98. Who is an enemy to Allah, and His angels and His messengers, and Gabriel and Michael! Then, lo! Allah (Him- self) is an enemy to the disbelievers. Surah 2:97-98 ( Pickthall)



            Those who are familiar the TV series, I Dream of Genii, or the Genie in the Lamp from the tales of the Arabian knights, might not be aware of the role Geniis (Jinn) play in Islam and the Quran.   

            According to Islam, the most well known Jinn is Satan, who rebelled against the command of Allah. 

50. And (remember) when We said unto the angels: Fall prostrate before Adam, and they fell prostrate, all save Ibis.  He was of the Jinn, so he rebelled against his Lord's command. Will ye choose him and his seed for your protecting friends instead of Me, when they are an enemy unto you? Calamitous is the exchange for evil doers! Surah 18:50 

In Islam, Jinn are beings who are both good and bad; like humanity, they have the freedom to choose.  Jinn, according to the Quran, were created from the fire (Surah 15:26-27, 55:15).  Jinn, also like men were created to serve Allah (Surah 51:56).  For example, in the Quran, Jinn were allies of Solomon’s armies (Surah 18:37).  Jinn heard the Quran, confirming it as the teaching of truth, like the teachings of Moses (Surah 46:29-30). 

29. And when We inclined toward thee (Muhammad) certain of the Jinn, who wished to hear the Qur’an and, when they were in its presence, said: Give ear! and, when it was finished, turned back to their people, warning. 30. They said: O our people! Lo! we have heard a Scripture which hath been revealed after Moses, confirming that which was before it, guiding unto the truth and a right road. Surah 46:29-30 


            Satan plays a prominent role in the Quran and Islam; called Shaitan and Ibis, the names Shaitan is derived from the Hebrew and Iblis from the Greek diabolos. According to the Quran, Satan is the leader of the evil Jinn, who refused to obey Allah.  What led to Satan fall is described in several places in the Quran.

Surah 38:71-77, describes the fall of Satan (Iblis) as follows,

71. When thy Lord said unto the angels: lo! I am about to create a mortal out of mire,
72. And when I have fashioned him and breathed into him of My spirit, then fall down before him prostrate, 73. The angels fell down prostrate, every one.
74. Saving Iblis, he was scornful and became one of the disbelievers.
75. He said: O Iblis! What hindereth thee from falling prostrate before that which I have created with both My hands?  Art thou too proud or art thou of the high
76. He said: I am better than him. Thou createdst me off fire, whilst him Thou didst create of clay. 77. He said: Go forth from hence, for lo! Thou art outcast, Surah 38:71-77 (Picthall)

Satan according to the Quran failed to worship Adam after he was created, the angels worshipped Adam, but Satan because he was a Jinn, and proud refused to worship.  The issue raised here is why would Allah, have Satan worship something he created, rather then worship Allah?  



In the Quran, Adam is the first created human being, who was appointed as viceroy or caliph of the earth, by Allah.  Man was created from sounding clay and molded into shape (Surah 15:26).  After man was created, Satan along with all the angels were commanded to worship the creation of Allah, Adam.  Satan’s refusal exposed his pride and the fact he was a Jinn. 

30. And when thy Lord said unto the angels: Lo! I am about to place a viceroy in the earth, they said: wilt Thou place therein one who will do harm therein and will shed blood, while we, we hymn Thy praise and sanctify Thee? He said: Surely I know that which ye know not.
31. And He taught Adam all the names, then showed them to the angels, saying: Inform me of the names of these, if ye are truthful.
32. They said: Be glorified! We have no knowledge saving that which Thou hast taught us. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Knower, the Wise.
33. He said: O Adam! Inform them of their names, and when he had informed them of their names, He said: Did I not tell you that I know the secret of the heavens and the earth? And I know that which ye disclose and which ye hide.
34. And when We said unto the angels: Prostrate yourselves before Adam, they fell prostrate, all save Iblis He demurred through pride, and so became a disbeliever.
35. And We said: O Adam! Dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden, and eat ye freely (of the fruits) thereof where ye will; but come not nigh this tree lest ye become wrongdoers.
36. But Satan caused them to deflect there from and expelled them from the (happy) state in which they were; and We said: Fall down, one of you a foe unto the other! There shall be for you on earth a habitation and provision for a tune.
Surah 2:30-36

The command to worship or fall prostrate before man, seems to violate the principle of God alone is worthy of worship.  Why would God command the angels to worship man, the creation of his hands, and violate His own law? 

Muslims have attempted to answer this paradox by implying that the angels only bowed and did not worship Adam, others contend their worship was toward man’s direction, but was directed to God, Adam only served as the direction or Qibla, like the Kaaba.   

Human Sin 

Islam does not believe humanity is born with a sin nature, but people choose to sin,  by listening to Satan, who causes people to go astray.  Soon after Adam’s creation, and the fall of Iblis  (Satan) who refused to worship Adam, Satan asked God for permission to try and test humanity from before and behind, until the resurrection.


12. He said: What hindered thee that thou didst not fall prostrate when I bade thee? (Iblis) said: I am better than him. Thou createdst me of fire while him Thou didst create of mud. 13. He said: Then go down hence! It is not for thee to show pride here, so go forth! Lo! thou art of those degraded.  14. He said: Reprieve me till the day when they are raised (from the dead). 15. He said: Lo! thou art of those reprieved. 16. He said : Now, because Thou hast sent me astray, verily I shall lurk in ambush for them on Thy Right Path.  17. Then I shall come upon them from before them and from behind them and from their right bands and from their left hands, and Thou wilt not find most of them beholden (unto Thee). 18. He said: Go forth from hence, degraded, banished. As for such of them as follow thee, surely I will fill hell with all of you.  Surah 7:12-18 (Pickthall) 

After Adam and his wife were placed in the Garden, Satan then made his move deceiving them, and making them rebel against their Lord.  

20. Then Satan whispered to them that he might manifest unto them that which was hidden from them of their shame, and he said: Your Lord forbade you from this tree only lest ye should become angels or become of the immortals. 21. And he swore unto them (saying): Lo! I am a sincere adviser unto you. 22. Thus did he lead them on with guile. And when they tasted of the tree their shame was manifest to them and they began to hide (by heaping) on themselves some of the leaves of the Garden. And their Lord called them, (saying): Did I not forbid you from that tree and tell you: Lo! Satan is an open enemy to you? 23. They said : Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If Thou forgive us not and have not mercy on us, surely we are of the lost! 24. He said: Go down (from hence), one of you a foe unto the other. There will be for you on earth a habitation and provision for a while. 25. He said: There shall ye live, and there shall ye die, and thence shall ye be brought forth.
Surah 7:20-25 (Pickthall)

From the Muslim view, this is the cause of sin, not a “sin nature”, but the testing of Satan, who tries humanity.   The difference between the Muslim and Christian views regarding sin is very clear.  Muslim’s do not see here the introduction of a sin nature, but merely a forgivable mistake by Adam.  While Christianity views this as the fall of man, causing the need for a Savior-Redeemer, Jesus Christ to redeem humanity from its fallen state.

Some Muslims view this as the point Adam and Eve entered earth, after their fall in Paradise, which caused them to be sent to the earth (Vs. 24).  Adam and Eve are seen only as making a mistake, which was pardoned by Allah.   Their offspring like them have to choose to reject Satan deceptions.

The Prophets 

In Arabic, there are two words for prophet, rasul, means “one who is sent”, and nabi, “one who carries information and carries good news from God”.  Rasul is derived from the Greek word Apostolos, and nabi is identical to the Hebrew word meaning the same.

Many Muslim scholars are of the opinion that prophets are either completely sinless, or at least free from all major sins or faults. Also, before the prophets were called they were noted for their good qualities, like Mohammad.

According to the Quran, every group of people received a messenger, by whom they will be judged.  These messengers proclaimed the same basic message, to serve God and turn from evil.  

47. And for every nation there is a messenger. And when their messenger cometh (on the Day of Judgment) it will be judged between them fairly, and they will not be wronged. Surah 10:47 

36. And verily We have raised in every nation a messenger, (proclaiming): Serve Allah and shun false gods. Then someof them (there were) whom Allah guided, and some of them (there were) upon whom error had just hold. Do but travel in the land and see the nature of the consequence for the deniers! Surah 16:36 

The message of each prophet is the same according to Islam, therefore Muslims accept all the earlier prophets and their message. 

 The Prophets of the Quran 

Since every community had a prophet, Muslim tradition has numbered the prophets in the world, throughout history at 124,000. The Quran however, depending on how one counts, lists between twenty-five and twenty-eight prophets, with the majority being of a biblical nature. 

84. And We bestowed upon him Isaac and Jacob; each of them We guided; and Noah did We guide aforetime; and of his seed (We guided) David and Solomon and Job and Joseph and Moses and Aaron. Thus do We reward the good. 85. And Zachariah and John and Jesus and Elias. Each one (of them) was of the righteous. 86. And Ishmael and Elisha and Jonah and Lot. Each one of them did We prefer above (Our) creatures,  Surah 6:84-86 (Pickthall) 

163. Lo! We inspire thee as We inspired Noah and the prophets after him, as We inspired Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes, and Jesus and Job and Jonah and Aaron and Solomon, and as we imparted unto David the Psalms; 164. And messengers We have mentioned unto thee before and messengers We have not mentioned unto thee; and Allah spake directly unto Moses;

165. Messengers of good cheer and off warning, in order that mankind might have no argument against Allah after the messengers. Allah was ever Mighty, Wise. Surah 4:163-165 (Pickthall) 

The five prophets considered of the highest order are Mohammad (The apostle of God), Noah (The preacher of God), Abraham (The friend of God), Moses (the speaker with God) and Jesus (the word of God)[10]

Islam and the other prophets 

In the stories of the prophets in Quran, the prophets essentially deliver their message and are rejected by the people. The majority of the people, reject the messages of their prophet, a few accept, God then judges the people via earthquake, fire or flood, the faithful are rewarded and spared.  Mohammad is seen as mirroring the biblical prophets, being rejected by his people, Mecca and the Quresh tribe, later in Medina the Jews and the Christians would also reject Mohammad. According to Islam, the Jews and Christians rejected Mohammad, like they rejected the earlier prophets.  The message of these earlier prophets was lost, only to be restored by Mohammad, who is the last prophet.

How was the message of the earlier prophets lost? Over time the message is forgotten and the people stray from the truth, such as the case for the Jews and the Christians according to Islam.  They have strayed from the truth delivered by their prophets, ie. Moses and Jesus, therefore God sent Mohammad to deliver the same message, which the earlier prophets delivered.

According to Islam, the message of Jesus, Moses and the other prophets was the same as  Mohammad’s, however over time, the message was diluted and the words of the prophets lost.  For this reason, Mohammad is the “seal of the prophets”, restoring the message of Allah for the world, before judgment, Mohammad is the last prophet.

Mohammad’s relations with the Jews and the Christians clearly change in the Quran over time.  At first in Mecca and early in Medina, Mohammad expected his favorable comments to bring him converts among the Christians and Jews. Both groups reject his message and revelation. 


62. Lo! those who believe (in that which is revealed unto thee, Muhammad), and those who are Jews, and Christians, and Sabaeans whoever believeth in Allah and the Last Day and doeth right surely their reward is with their Lord, and there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve.  Surah 2:162 

46. And argue not with the People of the Scripture unless it be in (a way) that is better, save with such of them as do wrong; and say: We believe in that which hath been revealed unto us and revealed unto you; our God and your God is One, and unto Him we surrender. Surah 29:46 

Being rejected by the Jews and Christians, attitude in Quran changes, from one of acceptance to one of open hostility.  The Jews and Christians are seen as conspiring against God, by even changing the words in the Book (the Bible) to prevent Mohammad from being accepted as prophet. 

51. O ye who believe! Take not the Jews and Christians for friends. They are friends one to another. He among you who taketh them for friends is (one) of them. Lo! Allah guideth not wrongdoing folk.  Surah 5:51 (Pickthall)


85. And whoso seeketh as religion other than the Surrender (to Allah) it will not be accepted from him, and he will be a loser in the Hereafter. Surah 3:85 (Pickthall)


29. Fight against such of those who have been given the Scripture as believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, and forbid not that which Allah hath forbidden by His messenger, and follow not the religion of truth, until they pay the tribute readily, being brought low. Surah 9:29   (Pickthall). 

In Islam, both Christianity and Judaism have been set aside because they broke their covenants with God.  The Christians associate Jesus with God (Shirk) and the Jews associate Ezra in the same way.  The Jews however, do not believe Ezra is the son of God, so where Mohammad received this information and included it in the Quran is in question. 

30. And the Jews say:. Ezra is the son of Allah, and the Christians say: The Messiah is the son of Allah. That is their saying with their mouths. They imitate the saying of those who disbelieved of old. Allah (himself) fighteth against them. How perverse are they! Surah 9:30 

The final break with God came when the “people of the book”, the Jews and Christians rejected the last and final prophet, Mohammad. (Surah 45:16-17; 5:14, 57:16) 

110. Ye are the best community that hath been raised up for mankind. Ye enjoin right conduct and forbid indecency; and ye believe in Allah. And if the People of the Scripture had believed it had been better for them. Some of them are believers; but most of them are evil livers. Surah 3:110 

The Books of the Jews and Christians 

In the earlier “revelations” Mohammad looks favorable to the books of the Jews and Christians, the Torah and Injil (Gospel). He refers to them “the book of God”, “the Word of God”, “a light and guidance to man”, “a decision for all matters, and a guidance and mercy,”  “the lucid Book”.  He even challenges his message, the Qura, to be compared with the revelations of the Jews and Christians, 

94. And if thou (Muhammad) art in doubt concerning that which We reveal unto thee, then question those who read the Scripture (that was) before thee. Verily the Truth from thy Lord hath come unto thee. So be not thou of the waverers. Surah 10:94 (Pickthall) 

Later the Christians and Jews are charged with tampering and with God’s word by concealing the word.


71. O People of the Scripture! Why confound ye truth with falsehood and knowingly conceal the troth? 72. And a party of the People of the Scripture say: Believe in that which hath been revealed, unto those who believe at the opening of the day, and disbelieve at the end thereof, in order that they may return; 73. And believe not save in one who followeth your religion. Say (O Muhammad): Lo! the guidance is Allah's guidance. that any one is given the like of that which was given unto you or that they may argue with you in the presence of their Lord. Say (O Muhammad): Lo! the bounty is in Allah's hand. He bestoweth it on whom He will. Allah is All Embracing, All Knowing. 78. And Lo! there is a party of them who distort the Scripture with their tongues,that ye may think that what they say is from the Scripture, when it is not from the Scripture. And they say: It is from Allah, when it is not from Allah; and they speak a lie concerning Allah knowingly.
Surah 3:71-73,78 (Pickthall)

The charge against the Torah and Injil (Gospel) 

Muslim scholars today, refer to the Torah and Gospel mentioned in the Quran as different then the Torah and Gospel in possession today. They claim they the originals have been mixed up, and the guidance in the original lost.   Therefore, the Word of God has not been preserved either with the Jews or Christians, but with the Muslims, in the Quran.


[1] Biblical Judaism as opposed to Rabbinical Judaism, Rabbinical Judaism relies on the teaching  and traditions of the rabbis, including the “Oral Traditions” codified in the Palestinian and Babylonian Talmud, along with Midrash and other traditions. Biblical Judaism is the Judaism of the Bible, and the prophets of the Old Testament (Tanakh).

[2]  The  word Shia means party, the Shia are allied to Ali, who was the fourth Caliph and the husband of Fatimah, Mohammad’s  daughter, the Shia believe the family of the prophet should be the successors of Mohamed. The Sunni do not hold to “right” of Mohammad’s family as successors to lead Islam.

[3] Bukhari was an imam (816-888) who collected 300,000 hadith, he eliminated 200,000 and from the 100,000, he choose 9,475 which were the most reliable.

[4] Meanings of the Holy Qu’aran, translated by Marmaduke Pickthall (All quotes are from this Quran)

[5] Mohammad’s name was Mohammad ibn Abdallah which means Mohammad son of Allah’s slave, ibn (son) abd (slave) –allah.

[6] This episode is known as the Satanic Verses, where Mohammad permitted intercession by the Daughters of Allah, including al-lat.  Mohammad later repudiated this revelation, claiming it was inspired by Satan and not Allah, see Surah 53:19-20.

[7] Norman L. Geiseler & Abdul Saleeb, Answering Islam, Baker Book House, Pgs. 15-16,  1993

[8] Meanings of the Holy Qu’aran, translated by Marmaduke Pickthall, Surah 4


[9] H.A.R. Gibb, Mohammedanism (London: Oxford University Press, 1964), 56-57

[10] Norman L. Geiseler & Abdul Saleeb, Answering Islam, Baker Book House, Pg. 54,  1993