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1 – The Truth about Creation


We need to be aware that the questions about the origins of the universe, the earth, and life, are not like other scientific questions because…

-    They are not something that can be repeated in a laboratory experiment.

-    There were no human observers, or eyewitnesses.


Because of this, scientific theories about origins are, at best, educated guesses.

-    The front cover of the April 2002 issue of Discover Magazine has a picture of the universe at 10-34 seconds, “actual size,” it’s about the size of a red marble with the following statement…

-    “The universe burst into something from absolutely nothing – zero, nada. And as it got bigger, it became filled with even more stuff that came from absolutely nowhere. How is that possible? Ask Alan Guth. His theory of inflation helps explain everything.” (8)

-    Dr. Alan Guth is cosmology’s leading man. In April 2001 he received the Benjamin Franklin Medal in physics, often a precursor to the Nobel Prize. He is a Professor of Physics at MIT. In the article Guth makes the following statements…

-    “To the average person it might seem obvious that nothing can happen in nothing. But to a quantum physicist, nothing is something.” (8, pg. 35)

-    “All matter plus all gravity in the observable universe equals zero. So the universe could come from nothing because it is, fundamentally, nothing.” (8, pg. 36)


-   Charles Darwin himself even acknowledged the problems with naturalism in his 1859 book, “The Origin of Species.”

-   “…the number of intermediate varieties, which have formerly existed on the earth, [should] be truly enormous. Why then is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely graduated organic chain; and this, perhaps, is the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory.” (12, pg. 279)


As Christians however we are convinced that the only observer of these events was God Himself, and that He has told us about them in the reliable words of His Word (THE BIBLE). John MacArthur says…

-   “It is therefore a serious mistake to imagine that modern scientists can speak more authoritatively than Scripture on the subject of origins. Scripture is God’s own eyewitness account of what happened in the beginning. When it deals with the origin of the universe, all science can offer is conjecture.” (10, pg. 23)



Some people may object that this whole discussion is inappropriate, for the Bible was given to us to teach religious and ethical matters; it is not intended to teach "science." John Clayton in the magazine, “Does God Exist?” makes this argument when he says…

-   “One of the major sources of misunderstanding about Genesis that has fueled the evolution/creation controversy has been that Christians have projected Genesis as a detailed scientific dissertation. Those who have done this have not taken Genesis literally, but have forced their denomination’s traditions upon biblical account.” (7, pg. 4)


-   However, Scripture places no such restriction on the subjects to which it can speak.

-   True, the Bible is not a science textbook, a history textbook, or even a textbook on religion. It is not a textbook at all; it is a revelation from God, and as such, the science and history it teaches is also true.

-   Theologian Dr. Douglas Kelly makes the following statement, “So the question of whether the Bible is a science textbook evades the real issues, which are to do with its claim to total truth and authority. It is meaningless to claim that scriptural authority applies only to ‘religious things’, since the Christian Gospel is all about real things, the real origin, history and destiny of man and the universe. Remove its claim to authority in the realm of science, and you are actually removing it from any relevance to the real world.” (11)


A Question of Faith

If we take seriously the idea that it is God himself who speaks all the words of Scripture, then we must take all biblical statements, to include those about creation, seriously and believe them as well. Indeed, Scripture says that our understanding of some "scientific" facts is a matter of our faith. Hebrews 11:3 tells us…

HEB 11:3 By faith we understand that the worlds were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible.

Hebrews 11:3 (NASB)


-   The facts of creation, therefore, are not open questions for human speculation, but are the subjects of divine revelation in God’s Word and the very first introduction of faith. Here’s what A.B. Simpson (founder of the Christian and Missionary Alliance) has to say about science and faith…

-   “Any conclusions of human science which contradict the fundamental statements of God’s Word in this matter are inconsistent with Christian faith and must ultimately be found to be scientifically false. So far as the doctrine of evolution contradicts this statement of the Holy Spirit, it must be rejected by reverent faith, as founded on false assumptions.” – A.B. Simpson, (5, pg. 11)

-   The term evolution in a broad sense means materialism, or naturalism. The intent being something from nothing.


-   In “The Battle for the Beginning,” John MacArthur states the following about naturalism…

-   “Naturalism is the view that every law and every force operating in the universe is natural rather than moral, spiritual, or supernatural. Naturalism is inherently antitheistic, rejecting the very concept of a personal God. Many assume naturalism therefore has nothing to do with religion. In fact, it is a common misconception that naturalism embodies the very essence of scientific objectivity. Naturalists themselves like to portray their system as a philosophy that stands in opposition to all faith-based world-views, pretending that it is scientifically and intellectually superior precisely because of its supposed nonreligious character. Not so. Religion is exactly the right word to describe naturalism. The entire philosophy is built on a faith-based premise. Its basic presupposition – rejection of everything supernatural – requires a giant leap of faith. And nearly all its supporting theories must be taken by faith as well” (10, pg. 11)


-   “The cosmos is all that is, or ever was, or ever will be” was Carl Sagan’s trademark he repeated on every episode of his television series Cosmos. This statement itself is clearly a tenet of faith, not a scientific conclusion. Sagan’s slogan is perfectly illustrative of how modern naturalism mistakes religious dogma for true science.

-   Note how Sagan deifies the universe and everything in it insisting that the cosmos itself is that which was, and is, and is to come.

-   Compare this with Scripture…


Revelation 4:8 (NASB)


-    Having examined enough of the cosmos to see the evidence of the Creator’s infinite power and majesty, Sagan put that glory on the creation itself. This is exactly the error that the apostle Paul describes in his epistle to the Romans.

RO 1:20 For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse.

RO 1:21 For even though they knew God, they did not honor Him as God or give thanks, but they became futile in their speculations, and their foolish heart was darkened.

Romans 1:20-21 (NASB)


-   Right conclusions about creation are necessary to Christian faith, and fundamental to the very principle of faith, which requires us to recognize at every step the great fact of supernatural power, and to believe in the God who is able to exercise the power of creation, and even of resurrection.


What is Creation?

The word “create” literally means to make out of nothing, and is used throughout the Scriptures and always applies to God and His creative power.

-    There are other words used in Scripture describing God’s creative power, “form,” “make,” “arrange,” and “stretched.” Many times individuals will take these words and “read” evolution of long ages into them.

-   However, the writer of Hebrews defines the meaning of creation beyond controversy. He declares that “what is seen was not made out of what was visible” Hebrews 11:3. That is, they were made out of nothing, and are not developments of previous matter, and certainly were not eternally existent.





God says a lot about His creation in His Word. But people’s nature being skeptical, even with proof, do not believe.



JN 10:25 Jesus answered them, “ I told you, and you do not believe; the works that I do in My Father’s name, these testify of Me.

JN 10:26 “But you do not believe because you are not of My sheep.

John 10:25-26 (NASB)


JN 20:24 But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came.

JN 20:25 So the other disciples were saying to him, “We have seen the Lord!” But he said to them, “Unless I see in His hands the imprint of the nails, and put my finger into the place of the nails, and put my hand into His side, I will not believe.”

JN 20:26 After eight days His disciples were again inside, and Thomas with them. Jesus came, the doors having been shut, and stood in their midst and said, “ Peace be with you.”

JN 20:27 Then He *said to Thomas, “ Reach here with your finger, and see My hands; and reach here your hand and put it into My side; and do not be unbelieving, but believing.”

JN 20:28 Thomas answered and said to Him, “My Lord and my God!”

JN 20:29 Jesus said to him, “Because you have seen Me, have you believed? Blessed are they who did not see, and yet believed.”

John 20:24–29 (NASB)


The purpose of this course is:

1.      To encourage Christians, and non-Christians, that God is the Creator and that we can know about Him and His creation.

2.      To begin to build a solid Biblical worldview, to instill a love for God’s Word and His world. Also, to help discern the various worldviews that drive much of what we see and hear in the secular culture.

3.      To strengthen our faith by gaining a better understanding of what God says about His creation and looking at the evidence.

4.      Look closely at theories that are inconsistent with Scripture.


This course will take us through Scriptures that deal with two very profound questions:

  1. Can the Bible and evolution be combined? In other words: Did God use evolution as part of His creative process?
  2. Does the Bible establish an age for the earth or does the Bible leave the age issue open for interpretation?


In addition, this course will examine some well-established scientific laws (laws of thermodynamics, the scientific method, definition of life) and explain how creation agrees with these laws and evolution contradicts the laws, making the creation model the more scientific model. The Bible of course supports this, but so does modern science.


This course will finish with a discussion of why it is important to make a correct decision about what we believe (what are the consequences of believing in evolution) and not rely on other’s perceptions, opinions, or our emotions about this topic. We should be encouraged to examine the Scriptures for ourselves and not just simply be hearers of what someone else is telling us.


Establishing Rules

Ground rules for interpreting what is read in the Bible.


1.      Always start with the Bible. The Bible is the primary source.

2.      Context – context – context

a.       Do not take anything out of context. If you are not sure what a word or phrase means, you should read the surrounding text to determine the true meaning. This will help avoid adding any personal opinions into God’s Word.

b.      Note: The use of a word in a specific passage can’t necessarily be defined by its context somewhere else. Context must be taken from the specific passage in question.

3.      Let Scripture interpret Scripture

a.       Let Scripture interpret, or support Scripture. If you are not sure of what something means, you should examine other Scriptures that might support or reinforce the true meaning.

b.      When studying a particular doctrine, every verse in the Bible having to do with the specific subject needs to be considered. Basing doctrine on a few verses will lead to false interpretations.

4.      Don’t let your experiences interpret the Bible

a.       You should not let your personal experiences, beliefs, or opinions influence the intended Biblical meaning. Begin with the Bible as your starting point. Many times personal experiences, or what you perceive to be true, can influence what you want the Bible to say. Remember that experiences do not always equal truth.

b.      You should also be aware of the track record of evolutionary beliefs. What was once considered to be scientific truth (based on evolutionary beliefs) has often changed because it was discovered to be wrong. The opposite is true of the Bible. Again and again science and archaeology prove the Bible to be accurate and true.





There Is More Than One Way To Look At The World


Worldview - A way of looking at the total world based on what you believe, and the way you understand what the world is all about.

-    Presuppositions play a big part of our worldview. ‘Pre’ means ‘before’ or ‘ahead of.’ ‘Supposition’ is from the word ‘suppose.’ When you suppose something, you believe it is true.

-    A presupposition is something we learned in the past. We carry these ideas around with us. When we observe something new we understand our new observations in light of our previous ideas.


Our worldview and presuppositions give us the answers to life’s difficult questions and the ones everyone asks and seeks answers for:

-   Who am I?

-   Where did I come from?

-   What is my purpose in life?

-   Why do bad things happen?

-   What is really true?

-   What happens after I die?


Naturalistic Worldview – Everything came about through time, chance and natural processes now operating in the world. No God is necessary.

-    How does an evolutionist answer the above questions?


Biblical Worldview – God created all things. Everywhere we see plan, purpose, and intelligent design.

-    A Biblical worldview points to Scripture as the eyewitness to the origin of all things, and claim to absolute truth. A Biblical worldview is what you believe about the world because of what you believe about God. As Christians we can confidently answer the above questions.


Finally, all the answers will come together and we all answer the question: How then should I live?

-   Answer for a Christian…

-   Answer for an Evolutionist…


We know that people have many different ways of looking at the world. Where do you suppose people get their ideas about the world?

-   Family

-   Friends

-   Education (teachers/professors)

-   TV/Movies

-   Books

-   Religion

-   The internet

-   “The Internet has become naturalism’s busiest mission field, where evangelists for the cause aggressively try to deliver benighted souls who still cling to their theistic presuppositions.” – John MacArthur (10, pg. 12)


What is the best way to discover what is really true?… Ask an eyewitness.

-    Do we as Christians have an eyewitness report written down anywhere?…The Bible.

-    When it comes to life’s difficult questions where should we look to find the truth?…The Bible


Can we trust what we read in the Bible?

2TI 3:16 All Scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness;

2TI 3:17 so that the man of God may be adequate, equipped for every good work.

2 Timothy 3:16-17 (NASB)


PS 119:142 Your righteousness is an everlasting righteousness, And Your law is truth.

Psalm 119:142 (NASB)


JN 1:14 And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we saw His glory, glory as of the only begotten from the Father, full of grace and truth.

JN 14:6 Jesus said to him, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life; no one comes to the Father but through Me.

JN 17:17 “ Sanctify them in the truth; Your word is truth.

John 1:14, 14:6, 17:17 (NASB)


Scripture can give us truth and has answers for the tough questions, like, “How did the world get here?” and “How did I get here?”

-    Now lets look at some Scripture to begin to develop a Biblical worldview. Lets look at what the eyewitness (God) tells us about how the heavens, the earth, and living things came to be.

GE 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

Genesis 1:1 (NASB)






GE 1:26 Then God said, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.”

GE 1:27 God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them.

Genesis 1:26-27 (NASB)


PS 148:5 Let them praise the name of the LORD, For He commanded and they were created.

Psalm 148:5 (NASB)


ISA 40:26 Lift up your eyes on high And see who has created these stars, The One who leads forth their host by number, He calls them all by name; Because of the greatness of His might and the strength of His power, Not one of them is missing.

Isaiah 40:26 (NASB)


ISA 45:12 “It is I who made the earth, and created man upon it. I stretched out the heavens with My hands And I ordained all their host.

Isaiah 45:12 (NASB)


COL 1:16 For by Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities— all things have been created through Him and for Him.

Colossians 1:16 (NASB)


What should our worldview be about the origin of the world and man?….GOD CREATED IT ALL

-    Does it make a difference whether you are a special creation of God or simply “came from inert chemicals”?

-    Would it make any difference in your worldview?

-    Would it make any difference on how you would live your life?


Lets look at another passage of Scripture and what God says about a naturalistic worldview and what He wants us to show us through His creation.

RO 1:18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men who suppress the truth in unrighteousness,

RO 1:19 because that which is known about God is evident within them; for God made it evident to them.

RO 1:20 For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse.

RO 1:21 For even though they knew God, they did not honor Him as God or give thanks, but they became futile in their speculations, and their foolish heart was darkened.

RO 1:22 Professing to be wise, they became fools,

RO 1:23 and exchanged the glory of the incorruptible God for an image in the form of corruptible man and of birds and four-footed animals and crawling creatures.

RO 1:24 Therefore God gave them over in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, so that their bodies would be dishonored among them.

RO 1:25 For they exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.

RO 1:26 For this reason God gave them over to degrading passions; for their women exchanged the natural function for that which is unnatural,

RO 1:27 and in the same way also the men abandoned the natural function of the woman and burned in their desire toward one another, men with men committing indecent acts and receiving in their own persons the due penalty of their error.

RO 1:28 And just as they did not see fit to acknowledge God any longer, God gave them over to a depraved mind, to do those things which are not proper,

RO 1:29 being filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, greed, evil; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, malice; they are gossips,

RO 1:30 slanderers, haters of God, insolent, arrogant, boastful, inventors of evil, disobedient to parents,

RO 1:31 without understanding, untrustworthy, unloving, unmerciful;

RO 1:32 and although they know the ordinance of God, that those who practice such things are worthy of death, they not only do the same, but also give hearty approval to those who practice them.

Romans 1:18-32 (NASB)


What three things do we learn about God from studying His creation? (v. 20)

How does Paul describe the men in verse 18, and what are they doing?

Do they have an excuse for what they have done? (v. 20)

What phrase is repeated in verses 24, 26 and 28?

Do we see people doing these things today?

What kind of worldview do these people have?




When we discuss the topic of origins, or how everything came into existence, there are two models:

1.      Evolution/Naturalism

2.      Creation


Within churches there are different views of the creation model, sometimes very strongly held ones. For example, some people believe in a literal 6-day creation and a young earth. Some believe that God created, but that the earth is billions of years old. Others believe that God used evolution as His method of creation.

-   C.I. Scofield believes in the Gap Theory and makes provisions for the Day Age concept.

-   J. Vernon McGee believes in the Ruin-Reconstruction Theory.

-   John MacArthur believes in a literal interpretation of creation, “Special Creation.”

-   Billy Graham addresses how Christians should act…

-   “It is important to note that there can be no real conflict between the facts of the Bible and the facts of science, since God was the Author of both. The problems arise when we begin to interpret those facts. Since Christians hold various views, it is important to keep an attitude of humility and charity toward others in these complicated areas. One fact is absolutely clear from the Bible—God is the Creator!” (9)


Within the evolution model there are also different views. Some people believe evolution happened gradually in slow steps. Some people believe that evolution happened in fast bursts.


Who is right?

-    Again, we will look at the Bible for the answer and what the evidence most clearly supports in view of the Bible.


When we consider how everything came into existence, we are left with only two possible choices: either we were created, or we evolved.

-   People will often disagree with limiting creation (especially the origin of life) to only two choices. Some will say that there are many ways the universe, or even life, could have come into existence.

-   Some will say life came from meteors. In 1996 scientists say they discovered fossils of ancient Martian bacteria on a Mars meteor.

-   “ At a televised press conference in Washington, a team of NASA and university researchers revealed that this well-traveled, 4.2-lb. stone had brought with it the first tangible evidence that we are not alone in the universe. Tucked deep within the rock are what appear to be the chemical and fossil remains of microscopic organisms that lived on Mars 3.6 billion years ago.” (13)

-   “Cornell University astronomer Carl Sagan, perhaps the most prominent champion of the search for extraterrestrial life, was exultant. ‘If the results are verified,’ he said, ‘it is a turning point in human history, suggesting that life exists not just on two planets in one paltry solar system but throughout this magnificent universe.’” (13)

-   Other scientists disagree and believe the “fossils” are really nothing more than mineral structures. “They argue that most of the putative microfossils are nothing more than narrow ledges of mineral protruding from the underlying rock, that under certain viewing conditions can masquerade as fossil bacteria. ‘There are regions that are absolutely teeming with these emergent [mineral] structures, whose shapes appear to be indistinguishable from some of the proposed nanofossils.’” (14)


-   Others say the universe was created by an advanced race.

-   “In [Guth’s] view, an advanced race could harness the engines of inflation and create a whole cosmos from scratch. Indeed, our universe could be such a creation.” (8, pg. 33)


-   Others say that aliens seeded the earth.

-   “After winning the Nobel Prize for helping to discover the structure of DNA…Francis Crick theorize[s] that life on earth may have sprung from tiny organisms from a distant planet – sent here by spaceship as part of a deliberate act of seeding. This bizarre-sounding theory…results partly from uneasiness among scientists over current explanations about how life arose spontaneously on earth.” (15, pg. 53) 


-   But do these theories answer the question of how life originated, it only pushes the question to outer space.

-   The only conclusion is – there are no third choices. We were either created or we are here by accident.


If there are only two choices for how everything came into existence (creation or evolution) and the two are opposites, then one choice must be correct and the other wrong.

-    Since they are opposites, this means there is no middle ground.

-    Yes, God could have used evolution, but His Word clearly states that He did not.

-    The scientific evidence also states that He did not.

-    Therefore, we are left to choose between believing in evolution or the Bible.




1.      The evolution model proposes that about 15 billion years ago, somehow, everything came into existence, all in a ball of mass. Then this ball of mass somehow began to expand, which is referred to as the big bang.

a.       Note the use of the word “somehow.” Scientifically, we are forced to use such a word because there is no scientific explanation for where the original matter came from, or what caused it to suddenly begin expanding. It is a matter of faith that somehow matter came into existence through natural processes.

2.      The model of evolution then proposes that about 4.6 billion years ago the earth and solar system evolved into existence by natural processes.

3.      Then about 3.5 billion years ago the first living cell evolved from lifeless chemicals, again by natural processes.

4.      Finally, the model of evolution proposes that we were not made in the image of God, but that we evolved from tree shrews through ape-like creatures.

a.       In a grade school geology textbook is the following statement, ”fossils show that it took 65 million years for human beings to evolve from small tree shrews, through…ape-like creatures.” (6, pg. 33)


We all know that evolution is what is being taught in our education system.

-   The sad part is that our children are being taught, as fact, that they are the product of a chance accident that occurred billions of years ago.

-   They are being taught that they are not made in the image of God, but are a product of a long chain of chance events.

-   This alone should alarm all Christians because children are being taught from first grade through college that there is no need for a Creator God.




1.      God created the universe and everything in it in 6 days.

2.      Sin is the cause of death. There was no death in the world prior to the fall.

3.      God destroyed the entire world by a flood.

4.      God created man in His image and likeness. We did not evolve from tree shrews.


Wayne Grudem defines the doctrine of creation as follows, “God created the entire universe out of nothing; it was originally very good; and he created it to glorify himself.” (4, pg.262)


In the days to follow we will examine each of the following essential questions about the creation model.

1.      How did God create the world? Did He create every different kind of plant and animal directly, or did He use some kind of evolutionary process, guiding the development of living things from the simplest to the most complex?

2.      Were the days of creation literal days or is there room to interpret them as long ages?

3.      Was there any death in the world prior to the fall of Adam and Eve?

4.      Was the Flood really a worldwide flood or was it just a local flood that covered the known region?


Rather than rely on opinions we will use the Bible as the authoritative source for our information.

We will also establish a theme as we examine the Biblical truths (or evidences) about creation.

The theme we will follow is in answering the same five questions throughout the course:

1.      What does the Bible say?

2.      What does the evidence show?

3.      How does the naturalistic worldview interpret the evidence?

4.      How does the Biblical worldview interpret the evidence?

5.      Did God use evolution as part of His creative process?


Remember when we talked about worldviews (how everyone looks at the same evidence, but comes up with very different ideas about it)?

-    The person who has a naturalistic worldview believes that everything came about through chance and by the natural process we observe operating today (steady state or uniformitarianism theory). This individual would not believe that divine intervention was required in creation.

-    The person with a Scriptural worldview believes there was an eyewitness to creation: God Himself. God tells us about the origin of things in His Word, the Bible. We are able to see purpose and intelligent design in all that there is.







The issue is that the creation model claims that God created all things. In the beginning God…


The evolution model claims that God had nothing to do with creation. In the beginning nothing…

-   Time, chance, and natural processes are all we need for everything we observe in the universe.


It appears the two models are opposites, opposed and incompatible.

-    The conflict is not between science and Scripture, but between a Christian’s faith and a naturalists faith.

-    Only by examining the Bible will we come to the truth.


How do the beliefs of evolution differ from the following Biblical statements?


  1. GE 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

Genesis 1:1 (NASB)


  1. COL 1:16 For by Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities— all things have been created through Him and for Him.

Colossians 1:16 (NASB)


  1. GE 1:25 God made the beasts of the earth after their kind, and the cattle after their kind, and everything that creeps on the ground after its kind; and God saw that it was good.

Genesis 1:25 (NASB)


  1. GE 1:27 God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them.

Genesis 1:27 (NASB)


As Christians, we believe the Bible is truth revealed to us by God, who is the true Creator of the universe. That belief is the basic foundation of Christianity. It is utterly incompatible with the presuppositions of naturalism.




1.      It Matters What We Believe by Mike Riddle, 2003

2.      It All begins with Genesis by Sheila Richardson, 2002

3.      The New Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible by James Strong (1822-1894), 1996

4.      Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine by Dr. Wayne Grudem, 1994

5.      The Christ in the Bible Commentary Volume One by A.B. Simpson, 1888

6.      Geology by Dougal Dixon, 1982

7.      Does God Exist? magazine article Making the Bible a Grocery Store Tabloid, July/August 2004

8.      Discover magazine article Guth’s Grand Guess, April 2002

9.      Looking for Answers online at

10.  The Battle for the Beginning by John MacArthur, 2001

11.  ‘But the Bible’s not a science textbook, is it?’ online at

12.  On the Origin of Species by Charles Darwin, 1859

13.  Time magazine article Life on Mars, Aug 19, 1996

14.  Science magazine article Putative Martian Microbes Called Microscopy Artifacts, Dec 5, 1997

15.  Time magazine article Were We Planted Here?, Sept 10, 1973