What was Life like
in the Pre-Flood World?
The pre-flood world is also
referred to as the antediluvian world.
was no doubt very different than what life is like
The climate was probably
universally warm, pleasant, and mild.
There were no deserts or
There was probably a more
extensive land surface and less water.
The ground terrain was
probably gentle, without the rugged mountains and
deep canyons, which affect our current weather so
Lush green vegetation thrived
Some of the richest oil and
coal deposits are found at the North and South Pole.
There was also apparently no
rain. The earth was watered by mist.
But a mist used to rise from the earth and water
the whole surface of the ground.
Purpose of the Flood
The purpose of the flood is
stated in Genesis 6:5-7, 11-13.
LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great
on the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts
of his heart was only evil continually.
was sorry that He had made man on the earth,
and He was grieved in His heart.
said, “ I will blot out man whom I have
created from the face of the land, from man to
animals to creeping things and to birds of the sky;
for I am sorry that I have made them.”
Now the earth was corrupt in the sight of God,
and the earth was filled with violence.
God looked on the earth, and behold, it was
corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted their way upon
Then God said to Noah, “ The end of all flesh has
come before Me; for the earth is filled with
violence because of them; and behold, I am about to
destroy them with the earth.
6:5-7, 11-13 (NASB)
God strove with people before
the flood. (Strive means
to devote serious effort or energy)
LORD said, “ My Spirit shall not strive with
Genesis 6:3 (NASB)
God is striving with people
today exactly as He did before the flood. Jesus
“ And just as it happened in the days of Noah, so
it will be also in the days of the Son of Man:
they were eating, they were drinking, they were
marrying, they were being given in marriage, until
the day that Noah entered the ark, and the flood
came and destroyed them all.
There are many disturbing
similarities with the world today such as:
pre-occupation with physical appetites,
materialistic attitudes, devotion to pleasure and
comfort, ungodly conduct, disregard for the
sacredness of the marriage relationship, rejection
of the word of God (Noah
preached for over 100 years and there were no
converts, except his own family),
widespread violence and corruption.
(The similarities are
Billy Graham states, “The
same sick perversions, moral decay, and erosions are
prevalent today. The Holy Spirit is mightily
striving but the vast majority of the human race
will not listen.” (5)
Verse 8 then says,
But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD.
“But Noah found grace…” what a difference
this conjunction makes.
(Make a comment about God’s grace in the both the
old and new testaments.)
Was the Flood Worldwide?
The Scripture supports a worldwide flood because of
the following reasons:
Because of the need for the ark to save a remnant of
humanity and animal life.
If the flood were local than all of the effort to
build the ark would have been unnecessary. Noah
could have just traveled to another region instead
of building an ark for 120 years.
Because of the wide distribution of man before the
Cain settled in the land of Nod, which could have
been as far off as China.
Because of the comparison made between the
historical flood judgment and the coming judgment of
fire in 2 Peter chapter 3, which states that as God
once destroyed the world by a flood he will likewise
do it by fire. (Not many
would propose a local fire theory.)
Because if the flood were local it would mean that
God lied to Noah when He promised to never again
send another destructive flood.
“I establish My covenant with you; and all flesh
shall never again be cut off by the water of the
flood, neither shall there again be a flood to
destroy the earth.”
Genesis 9:11 (NASB)
(There have of course been many local destructive
floods since like, Tsunami’s, Hurricanes, Rain)
Because of the flood traditions, which can be found
in the history of every ancient civilization and
Sir James George Frazer wrote a 3-volume work titled
“Folk-Lore in the Old Testament,” which is a
set of negative commentaries on Genesis, published
in 1918. He was a scoffer, but the evidence that he
assembled in order to try to attack Scriptural
integrity really supports it.
Because of marine fossils found on top of mountains.
Because of fossil fish beds found on land and in the
When fish die they float because of organs that help
them control buoyancy.
For fish to fossilize they have to be rapidly
buried, otherwise they will float to the surface
when they die and be scavenged and decompose.
So the purpose of the flood was
to destroy man from the face of the earth and all of
the animals and birds.
Could a local flood destroy
all the people, animals and birds?…No, only a global
flood could do that.
How Big was Noah’s Ark?
“Make for yourself an ark of gopher wood; you
shall make the ark with rooms, and shall cover it
inside and out with pitch.
“This is how you shall make it: the length of the
ark three hundred cubits, its breadth fifty cubits,
and its height thirty cubits.
“You shall make a window for the ark, and finish
it to a cubit from the top; and set the door of the
ark in the side of it; you shall make it with lower,
second, and third decks.
Genesis 6:14-16 (NASB)
One cubit is about 18 inches. Converting the
Biblical measurements to standard units would make
the ark about 450 feet long, 75 feet wide and 45
The Queen Mary 2 is the world’s largest, longest,
and tallest ocean liner in the world. It was
launched in January 2004 and is 1132 feet long.
By comparison Noah’s ark is 40% the length of the
Queen Mary II.
The ark, according to the specifications laid down
by God, was to be 300 cubits long by 50 cubits wide
by 30 cubits high.
The ratios of these numbers are important and
reflect an advanced knowledge of shipbuilding.
By contrast the Babylonian flood legend mentions the
boat as being a cube. A vessel shaped like a cube
would simply spin slowly around.
(This is ignorant in
The Bibles dimensions for the ark are important
because the correct ratio is needed to control
pitching and rolling. These ratios of length (300)
to breadth (50) are 6:1.
The ratio of some present-day giant tankers is 7:1.
You must remember that today’s ship builders have
generations of ship building knowledge and advanced
technology. The ark was the first of its kind.
Even the dimensions of the ark prove that the Bible
is the Word of God.
How did All of the Animals Fit on the Ark?
How many animals were involved?
Ernest Mayer lists the following numbers for animal
species. 3500 mammals, 8600 birds, 5500 reptiles and
About 8000 genus of animals exist, including extinct
genus. So about 16000 animals would have needed to
be aboard the ark.
(Remember the discussion on “kinds” of animals)
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus,
The average size of all animals is about the size of
Based on livestock figures for transportation on
railroad cars a stockcar can hold any of the
following: 25 cattle, 150 hogs, or 240 sheep
The ark contains enough space for 522 stock cars.
Using these figures 16000 sheep sized animals would
require only about 67 stock cars leaving an
additional 455 empty.
More than ample room for Noah, the animals, and food
for the year.
Immature animals of course could be brought instead
of mature bigger animals.
Animals were also more than likely hibernating on
the ark as well.
Rain fell for forty
For another 110
days the waters rose, “prevailing” for
150 days (7:24)
The waters took 74
days “going and decreasing,” from the
17th of the seventh month to the 1st day
of the tenth month (8:4,5).
With 30 days to a month, the number of
days were 13 plus 30 plus 30 plus 1
Forty days elapsed
before Noah sent out the raven (8:6,7)
Seven days elapsed
before Noah sent out the dove for the
first time (8:8).
This is implied in the phrase “another
seven days” (8:10)
Seven days passed
before sending out the dove for the
second time (8:10)
Seven days more
passed before the third sending of the
To this point 285
days are accounted for, but the next
episode is dated the 1st of the first
month in the 601st year. From the date
in 7:11 to this point in 8:13 is a
period of 314 days; therefore an
interval of 29 days elapses
From the removal of
the covering of the ark to the very end
of the experience was a further 57 days
Genesis does not describe a
flood that lasted for one day.
The Bible states that the
floodgates of heaven were opened and the fountains
of the deep burst forth. It rained for 40 days and
…the same day all the fountains of the great deep
burst open, and the floodgates of the sky were
The rain fell upon the earth for forty days and
Concerning the “fountains of
the great deep” a National Geographic article makes
the following statement, “Molten rocks deep in
the earths interior may be surprisingly wet,
Japanese researchers say. From lab experiments, they
have concluded there may be more H2O deep
underground than in all oceans, lakes, and rivers
combined. The researchers concluded that more water
probably exists deep within the Earth than is
present on Earth’s surface – as much as ten times
This is rather significant
considering that the surface of the earth is covered
by 70% water.
The waters lifted the Ark and
all the mountains were covered by 15 cubits of water
(about 20 feet). All land breathing creatures,
except those on the Ark, perished.
The water prevailed more and more upon the earth,
so that all the high mountains everywhere under the
heavens were covered.
The water prevailed fifteen cubits higher, and
the mountains were covered.
All flesh that moved on the earth perished, birds
and cattle and beasts and every swarming thing that
swarms upon the earth, and all mankind;
This does not sound like the
description of a local flood.
Water and Gravity
If a glass of water is poured
on a table what happens to the water?
Answer: The water starts to
spread out and it continues to spread until
something stops it.
The water does not stay in a
nice, neat pile because of gravity.
Gravity is exerting a force
on the water causing it to spread out over the table
until something stops it.
(Going back to the description of the Genesis
same day all the fountains of the great deep burst
open, and the floodgates of the sky were opened. The
rain fell upon the earth for forty days and forty
While all of this was
happening, gravity was exerting a force on the water
causing it to spread out until something stopped it.
But as we read in the Flood
description, there was nothing to stop the water
because the water covered the mountains by over 20
How could the water rise above
the mountains by 20 feet and still be a local flood?
Water seeks its own level.
Therefore, this cannot be a local area flood unless
we try to do away with gravity and the
characteristics of water.
How could the water rise to
cover the local mountains and leave the rest of the
When we take a scientific
approach to the description of the flood in the
Bible, the result is that it was a worldwide flood.
In Genesis chapter 9, God makes
an everlasting covenant.
Then God spoke to Noah and to his sons with him,
“Now behold, I Myself do establish My covenant
with you, and with your descendants after you;
and with every living creature that is with you,
the birds, the cattle, and every beast of the earth
with you; of all that comes out of the ark, even
every beast of the earth.
“I establish My covenant with you; and all flesh
shall never again be cut off by the water of the
flood, neither shall there again be a flood to
destroy the earth.”
“When the bow is in the cloud, then I will look
upon it, to remember the everlasting covenant
between God and every living creature of all flesh
that is on the earth.”
9:8-11, 16 (NASB)
If we interpret the Genesis
Flood to be a local flood, then God’s everlasting
covenant is meaningless because we have had many
devastating local floods throughout the world since
The only interpretation that
is consistent with God’s everlasting covenant is
that it was a worldwide flood, since there has never
been another flood that has covered the entire
The Bible supports a worldwide
flood, not a local flood.
This means that long geologic
ages do not agree with the Bible.
Now we must ask the
What does the geologic
evidence support, long ages or young earth?
Is there any geologic
evidence to support the Biblical account of a
Geologic Evidence for a Worldwide Flood
Evidence from Marine Fossils
Marine fossils are found on the
mountaintops of every continent.
Mount Everest has marine
fossils near its peak.
The Alps in Austria contain
Whale fossils have been found
over 400 feet above sea level north of lake Ontario,
more than 500 feet above sea level in Vermont, and
600 feet above sea level in Montreal.
Whale fossils are also found
in the Andes Mountains of South America in mass
whale graveyards indicating rapid burial. At
different locations in Peru over 500 whale fossils
have been found. In the photo below of the hill
Cerro Queso Grande over 60 whale fossils were
found. Of all of the fossils found there is no
evidence of scavenging or predatory attacks. (27,
How did all these marine
fossils get up on the mountains?
The only answer is that at
one time in the history of the earth, all of these
mountains had to be covered with water.
There are two explanations for
how the ocean waters covered the mountains.
Biblical explanation: The
Genesis worldwide flood.
Evolution explanation: The
continents sank underneath the oceans and came back
There are nearly 300 legends of a worldwide flood.
There are no legends of continents sinking beneath
the ocean. Also, no one ever observed or recorded a
Evidence from Fossil
Vast fossil graveyards are
found all over the world. Sometimes there are
thousands, or more,
creatures buried and fossilized together.
How does something get
fossilized? Not by long, slow processes. An organism
must be covered rapidly by the sediments to keep out
scavengers and oxygen.
It would take a catastrophic
event to bury thousands of animals in these
graveyards, which are located all over the world.
Large fossil graveyards have been discovered in New
Mexico, Canada, Wyoming, Tanzania, Belgium,
Mongolia, the Gobi Desert of Central Asia, and many
Pictured on the right is the
Morrison Formation (sedimentary rock), extending
from Canada into New Mexico.
The most common fossils are
clams found in the closed position. Snail fossils
are also found.
How do so many creatures all
get buried and fossilized in one location? It would
take a large catastrophic event to bury so many
animals quickly, and these fossil graveyards are
found worldwide. This is consistent with the
Biblical description of the Genesis Flood.
When we turn to our geology
books, we are led to believe that large canyons take
thousands or millions of years to form by rivers
running through them. Is this true?
Pyroclastic Flows - Mount
On May 18, 1980 the volcano
Mount Saint Helens erupted.
At 8:32 am an
earthquake of magnitude 5.1 struck Mount St. Helens.
This resulted in the largest observed landslide in
The entire side of the
mountain slid down into Spirit Lake causing a wave
over 800 feet high onto the north shore of the lake.
Following the volcanic blast
came tremendous pyroclastic flows (hot gas mixed
with volcanic fragments) moving down the mountain
at speeds of over 70 miles per hour with
temperatures over 800 degrees.
In addition to the
pyroclastic flows, there were tremendous mudflows
that occurred because of all the snow and ice on top
of the mountain that suddenly melted.
These mudflows flowed off the
mountain at over 50 miles per hour with such force
that some extended for over 20 miles past the
What was the effect of all this
Many large canyons were
created in a very short time.
One of these canyons was
nicknamed the “Little Grand Canyon” because
its formations resemble that of the Grand Canyon.
It is one-fortieth the size
of the Grand Canyon. The canyon has plateaus that
resemble the north and south rims of the Grand
Canyon. It also has side canyons that resemble side
canyons found in the Grand Canyon.
The question is, “How long
did it take to make this canyon?”…One day. This fact
should call into question the necessity for long
ages to make large canyons.
The Scablands in Eastern
In the eastern part of
Washington state there is a large barren area of
solid rock called the Scablands.
Throughout the Scablands are
many channels and canyons. Some of these canyons are
hundreds of feet deep and extend for over 15 miles
The locals call these long,
deep channels “coulees.”
Grand Coulee is a well-known
channel in the Scablands that contains the Grand
The naturalistic interpretation
for how channels and canyons form is by long, slow
For the Scablands it would be
rivers carving these formations over millions of
In the early 1900’s,
geologist J. Harlan Bretz suggested a catastrophic
flood as the cause of the channels and canyons of
Some scientists today fully
accept the idea that canyons can be formed by
catastrophic events in a short period and that long
ages are not necessary.
The United States Geological
Survey states the following on their website:
“Such catastrophic floods raced across the
southward-dipping plateau a number of times, etching
the coulees which characterize this region, now
known as the
channeled scablands.” (7)
“U.S. Geological Survey
experts have estimated the flow near the dam breach
at 10 times more than the combined flow of all the
rivers in the world.” (8)
Stephen Jay Gould makes the
“I have questioned the
gradualist orthodoxy before…in biological terms. I
have argued that gradualism is a culturally
conditioned prejudice, not a fact of nature, and I
have made a plea for pluralism in concepts of rate.
Punctuational change is at least as important as
imperceptible accumulation.” (9, pg. 15)
“Dogmas play their worst
role when they lead scientists to reject beforehand
a counterclaim that could be tested in nature.”
(9, pg. 15)
“Charles Lyell, the
godfather of geologic gradualism, had pulled a fast
one in establishing the doctrine of imperceptible
change. He had argued that geologists must invoke
the invariance (uniformity) of natural law through
time in order to study the past scientifically. He
then applied the same term – uniformity – to an
empirical claim about rates of processes, arguing
that change must be slow, steady, and gradual, and
that big results can only arise as the accumulation
of small changes.” (9, pg. 17)
I agree with Gould. The
evidence does not indicate slow processes, rather
The steady-state explanation is
that the Colorado River took millions of years to
form the Grand Canyon.
However, there are some
problems with this interpretation.
In the picture on the right
the red line shows a geologic unconformity.
An unconformity represents a
time in the geologic column where rock layers are
This unconformity in the
Grand Canyon divides rock layers with fossils from
those with no fossils.
Unconformities are found
everywhere across the world.
According to the USGS this
unconformity in the Grand Canyon is around a 1.2
billion year gap.
There is no sign of erosion
between the two layers, which means they were laid
down rapidly one on top of the other.
How could a river that
is only several hundred feet wide have enough energy
to carve out the Grand Canyon, which is over 15
miles wide at parts?
just looked at this with the scablands) (Put up
Where are all the sediments
that the Colorado River supposedly pushed out to
make the canyon?
The answer is that the
sediments are more than 15 miles out into the gulf.
It would take a catastrophic
movement of water to push this much sediment that
far out into the gulf.
Why does the canyon contain
hundreds of thousands of square miles of parallel
strata? If the canyon took millions of years to
form, then there should be signs of erosion between
the strata, but they are not there.
Parallel strata are formed by
large amounts of rapidly running water and mud
flows, as observed from Mount Saint Helens, and
(Draw out the plastic nature of the strata and how
The top, surface layer is the
Kaibab Limestone and is dated to 250 million years
How can the top surface layer
of the Grand Canyon be dated to 250 million years
What’s been happening for the
past 250 million years?
Finally, the Native Indian
population (Havasupai Tribe) has a local flood
legend to describe the formation of the Grand
“Before there were any
people on earth there were two gods. Tochapa of
goodness and Hokomata of evil. Tochapa had a
daughter named Pu-keh-eh, whom he hoped would become
the mother of all living. Hokomata the evil was
determined that no such thing should take place, and
he covered the world with a great flood. Tochapa the
good felled a great tree and hollowed out the trunk.
He placed Pu-keh-eh in the hollowed trunk and when
the water rose and flooded the earth she was secure
in her improvised boat.
Finally the flood waters
fell and mountain peaks emerged. Rivers were
created; and one of them cut the great gushing
fissure, which became the Grand Canyon. Pu-keh-eh in
her log came to rest on the new earth. She stepped
forth and beheld an empty world. When the land
became dry, a great golden sun rose in the east and
warmed the earth and caused her to conceive. In
time, she gave birth to a male child. Later a
waterfall caused her to conceive and she gave birth
to a girl. From the union of these two mortal
children came all the people on the earth. The first
were the Havasupai, and the voice of Tochapa spoke
to them and told them to live forever in peace in
their canyon of good earth and pure water where
there would always be plenty for all!”
This of course is a
recognizable version of the worldwide flood of
The conclusion about the Grand
Canyon is that the geological evidence supports a
rapid formation and not millions of years.
Most textbooks claim that when
we observe many thin layers of sediment (called
lamina), sometimes only millimeters thick, that it
took a season, a year, or years to lay each of the
The picture on the right
shows a canyon containing thousands of thin layers.
If someone did not know when it was formed, the
naturalistic interpretation might be that the canyon
is thousands of years old.
However, this canyon was
formed in one day by a mudflow from Mount St.
Helens in 1982.
Note the thin layers of
sedimentation in the Mt. Saint Helens’ canyon, which
were formed rapidly.
(Liquefaction and turbidites are two more observable
evidences for rapid sedimentation.)
Liquefaction is the process of
making or becoming liquid. During earthquakes water
saturated sediments can break apart and form into a
thick mud. (Like
wiggling your toes in wet sand)
The liquefied sediment not
only moves about beneath the surface but may also
rise through fissures and erupt as mud boils and mud
Slight differences in
density, size, or shape of particles will cause them
to fall at slightly different speeds. Their relative
positions will change until the water’s velocity
drops below a certain speed or until nearly
identical sized particles are adjacent to each
other, so they will fall at the same speed.
This sorting produces the
layering typical in sedimentary rocks.
A worldwide flood would have
caused massive liquefaction to occur and leave
thinly layered sediments rapidly.
Liquefaction has been observed
in many recent earthquakes. Some of these
Niigata, Japan, 1964
Loma Prieta, USA, 1989
Kobe, Japan, 1995
Turbidites are the result of
catastrophic water currents resulting in underwater
In 1927, an earthquake
triggered an underwater landslide off the coast of
Newfoundland, Canada. The underwater avalanche
covered an area of 40,000 square miles leaving a
three-foot deposit of sediment in just hours.
The result was a layer of
sediment laid down rapidly.
Turbidites are similar in
character to many solidified rocks that have been
studied in the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains,
which geologists thought had been deposited by calm
They now recognize that
many, if not most of the rocks on land, are
actually the result of turbidites.
A layer, called the Tapeats
Sandstone, covers most of North America.
It would have taken a great
underwater event to create such a formation.
Summary of Geologic Processes
We have just covered four
observable actions that create rapid sedimentation
over large areas, 1) Rapid erosion, 2) Pyroclastic
flows, 3) Liquefaction, and 4) Turbidites.
None of these geologic
actions require long periods of time and all four
are known to have caused most of the sedimentation
on the earth.
Now we need to ask the
question: Are long periods of time necessary for
what we observe geologically?
The answer is no.
It has been observed that
large canyons can form rapidly. It is also known
that many thin layers (lamina) can form rapidly.
Coal formation from an
Coal was formed from plant
life buried in the Earth millions of years ago. “The
Coal Age,” which ended about 280 million years ago,
was when the great coal beds of the world formed.
After the plant life died, it fell into swamp water
where it partially decomposed into a slimy,
colloidal mass and formed peat. As the seas advanced
and receded in cycles over the earth, they deposited
heavy layers of sandstone, shale, and other rocks on
top of the peat. The increased pressure caused the
buried peat to dry and harden into coal. (10,
Most coal deposits occur in
the same geologic strata known as the Carboniferous
A coal seam is a flat layer
having the same surface area as the swamp in which
it originally accumulated.
The Great Dismal Swamp in
Virginia and North Carolina is one of the largest
modern peat swamps. It contains an average
thickness of 6-feet of peat.
However, unless this swamp
lasts for millions of years, even it’s dense growth
is insufficient to produce a coal seam as thick as
some of the seams in Pennsylvania.
Individual coal beds range in
thickness from a few inches to 800 feet (10, pg.
There is strong evidence
against long ages for coal formation.
Polystrate fossils, tree
fossils that sometimes span many coal seems (over 30
feet tall), are found all over the world.
If coal took millions of
years to form, then none of these polystrate fossils
should be there. They would have rotted in just
years. This is observable evidence that coal can
form rapidly. Other scientists have noted that the
trees found in coal beds did not grow there, they
were most likely washed there by some catastrophic
event, such as a flood.
If coal is formed by slow
natural processes why aren’t there deposits at all
levels, instead of primarily at the “Carboniferous
The devastation at Mount St.
Helens (the blast,
landslide, giant water wave, mud flows, etc.)
caused many trees from the dense forest around the
mountain to be washed into Spirit Lake, estimates up
to one million logs.
Over the past 20 years, many
of these logs have turned upright and sunk to the
bottom of the lake. Scuba divers have been to the
bottom of the lake and noted that the trees have
their roots cut just like the polystrate fossils
found in coal beds.
None of those trees grew at
the bottom of Spirit Lake; they were all washed
there by the catastrophic event.
It has also been observed
that a three-foot-thick layer of peat has formed at
the bottom of the lake from a mixture of bark and
The naturalistic explanation is
that it takes thousands of years for swamp
vegetation to decay and slowly turn to peat and
then millions of years for the peat to slowly turn
We now know this is not true,
it can happen in a very short time as evidenced at
Mount Saint Helens.
Experiments by Dr. George R.
Hill and Dr. Don C. Adams at the University of Utah
have shown that plant matter can be turned into coal
in a matter of hours. (24, pg. 296)
Do we need long ages for what
we observe geologically?…No.
Oil formation from an
“Complete agreement has
not yet been reached as to how liquid petroleum is
produced in nature. It is generally believed that
the remains of the plants and animals, when buried
in mud, develop a reducing environment which
protects them from destruction by oxidation.”
(19, pg. 641)
agree that crude oil was formed over millions of
years from the remains of tiny aquatic plants and
animals that lived in ancient seas. There may be
bits of brontosaurus thrown in for good measure, but
petroleum owes its existence largely to one-celled
marine organisms. As these organisms died, they sank
to the seabed. Usually buried with sand and mud,
they formed an organic-rich layer that eventually
turned to sedimentary rock.” (20)
In 1971, in an article titled
“Converting Organic Wastes to Oil,” published by the
United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of
Mines, Hayden R Appell, Y. C. Fu and Sam Friedman
reported that petroleum can be produced from organic
matter in only 20 minutes.
A $22.4 million proposal was
approved in Western Australia for the world’s
first plant to make oil from sewage sludge. The
sludge is heated without oxygen to 4500 C in one
reactor, and then in a second reactor, the resultant
vapors are allowed to contact the residue from the
first. This speeds up their breakdown into a diesel
grade fuel oil. The process, which requires no
outside substances, essentially involves heating
The technology, described as
one that “mimics nature,” produces oil in much the
same way that nature produces oil, but is completed
in around 30 minutes.
Again, do we need long ages for
what we observe geologically?…No.