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The Surface of the Earth, Rocks and Fossils


What are they Evidence of?

1.      Slow processes over millions of years. (OR)

2.      Recent cataclysmic events over thousands of years.


Consider an individual who does not believe in Scripture.

-    How would they explain how the earth’s rock layers, fossils, mountains and valleys came to be?

-    Answer: Through processes that take millions of years.

-    The processes of erosion, sedimentation and plate tectonics that occurred in the past produced what we observe around us and those same processes are still working today.


-   Have you ever been to the Grand Canyon? What are you told about how it formed?

-    ”The Colorado River through the slow process of erosion carved out the canyon over millions of years.”

(Even on a vacation you need to be ready to discern naturalistic presuppositions)


If these processes took millions of years, and recorded history only goes back thousands of years, how do they know how it happened?

-   Many people are looking for ways to explain our world through natural processes eliminating the need for a Creator God. The Bible predicted this would happen.

RO 1:20 For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse.


RO 1:21 For even though they knew God, they did not honor Him as God or give thanks, but they became futile in their speculations, and their foolish heart was darkened.


RO 1:22 Professing to be wise, they became fools,


RO 1:25 For they exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.

Romans 1:20-22, 25 (NASB)


Many people are looking for evidence to prove the Bible…It doesn’t work that way.

-   As Christians we want to use the Bible to understand the evidence, to understand the world we live in, present, past and future.

-   The evidence around us only makes sense in light of God’s Word. (Put up transparency)


The current secular theory of geology is called uniformitarianism, or the steady state theory (what’s been has always been). The idea is that geologic formations occur over long periods of time and in a uniform manner.

-   The concept is that geological processes occur by the action of natural laws that are always the same, and by processes that can be observed today.

-   The college textbook, Earth Science, states the following about uniformitarianism: “Uniformitarianism is a fundamental concept in modern geology. It simply states that the physical, chemical, and biological laws that operate today have also operated in the geologic past. That is to say that the forces and processes that we observe presently shaping our planet have been at work for a very long time. Thus, to understand ancient rocks, we must first understand present-day processes and their results. This idea is commonly stated by saying ‘the present is the key to the past.’” (6, pg. 243)


But there is another way of looking at it, a way that agrees with the Bible. The Biblical way of looking at the rocks and fossils is called catastrophism.

-   Catastrophism is the theory that a significant portion of the geologic structure of the earth was formed in a global catastrophe of short duration, years rather than millions of years.

-   This would include God’s original creation action, the fall of man, and the biblical flood of Noah.

(Also point out that the things had to be created with a level of maturity: Adam was an adult, trees with growth rings, animals told to multiple, fruit with seed in them)

-   The same college textbook quoted above to define uniformitarianism also defines catastrophism as such: “Catastrophists believed that the earth’s landscape had been developed primarily by great catastrophes. Features such as mountains and canyons, which today we know take great periods of time to form, were explained as having been produced by sudden and often worldwide disasters produced by unknowable causes that no longer operate. (6, pg. 242)

-   Another way of saying this, and what they are referring to, is that God doesn’t exist and that everything can be explained in terms of natural laws and processes. It’s almost like they are mocking the Bible and God.

-   Of course the naturalistic worldview has to take this view. There can be no other alternative if the starting point for interpreting the evidence is that there is no God.

-   Catastrophism is supported by actual, recorded history. Nearly 300 ancient flood legends have survived. Legends of a worldwide flood are found in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, North American and South America.

-   As we will see catastrophism is also support by the physical evidence as well. 


The Bible interestingly enough points out this fact that people would one day reject the creative power of God and adopt just such a theory as uniformitarianism.

2PE 3:3 Know this first of all, that in the last days mockers will come with their mocking, following after their own lusts,


2PE 3:4 and saying, “ Where is the promise of His coming? For ever since the fathers fell asleep, all continues just as it was from the beginning of creation.”


2PE 3:5 For when they maintain this, it escapes their notice that by the word of God the heavens existed long ago and the earth was formed out of water and by water,


2PE 3:6 through which the world at that time was destroyed, being flooded with water.

2 Peter 3:3-6 (NASB)

God is the Creator and He will judge the world again just like He did in Noah’s day.


Where did all of the Earth’s Water come From?


There are multiple theories:

-   On NASA’s website the question is asked, “Why is there so much water on the Earth?” The response is as follows: “We don’t really know. One possibility is that the orbit of the Earth is the closest to the sun that water/ice can exist so that if a planet forms here and farther out in the solar system, it can get quite a load of water. Mars lost most of its water because it just couldn’t hold on to an atmosphere and the water was photo-disassociated by UV light from the sun” (15)

-   There is a contradiction here because current evolutionary theory requires that the early life on earth actually formed the atmosphere. If that’s true why didn’t the water on earth photo-disassociate like it did on Mars before the atmosphere formed?


-   A Science News article states the following: “Earth has substantially more water than scientists would expect to find at a mere 93 million miles from the sun. How did Earth come to posses its seas?” (16)

-   This article goes on to say that the water could have come from comets, hundreds of millions of them, or smaller wet planets that collided with the earth.

-   The article also points out the difficulties with these theories: “Water isn’t the only matter on our planet today that seems unlikely to have formed at Earth’s proximity to the sun. There are also compounds and elements that readily vaporize, including chemically inert noble gases, such as argon, krypton, and xenon, and the elements nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen.” (16)


-   A National Geographic article states the following, Scientists want to know if the Earth’s water was incorporated into the Earth as the planet formed or if the water arrived on Earth as a result of cometary [comets] impacts after the Earth was already formed.” (17)


-   The following comes from Compton’s Encyclopedia: “Most scientists believe that billions of years ago the Earth was a mass of hot, swirling gases and dust. Hydrogen and oxygen, the builders of water, were among the gases. When the Earth began to cool, atoms of hydrogen and oxygen joined to form water. Torrents of water flowed over the rocks of the Earth and began to shape the continents.” (14, pg. 85)

-   There are problems with this theory:

-   With no atmosphere the earth is too close to the sun to retain water. Any water would disassociate.

-   The lighter elements did not collect in large quantities on the inner planets.

-   Note the last sentence about how “torrents of water” shaped the continents. Sounds familiar.


Of course as Christians we know where all of the water came from…God created it. The Bible says,

2PE 3:5 For when they maintain this, it escapes their notice that by the word of God the heavens existed long ago and the earth was formed out of water and by water,

2 Peter 3:5 (NASB)


The Power of Water


Consider the power of water and how long it takes to create a large flood.

-   Off the coast of the Carolinas in 1998, during hurricane Bonnie, it rained non-stop for 30 hours. During this one-day period the water reached the second story in many buildings.

(We lived in FL during hurricanes Opal and Erin. Mobile Bay was sucked dry.)


Current examples of the power of water:

- Tsunami in Indian Ocean

- Mud Slides in CA

- Ohio Flooding

- Rocky Mountain Snow Fall


Is it possible that a worldwide flood once inundated the earth?

-   What would be the effects on the earth’s surface of a worldwide flood?

-   Could the water of a worldwide flood account for much of what we see today in the fossil record, canyons and mountains?


-   People who believe in evolution relegate the Genesis Flood to be either a myth or a local area flood.

-   People who believe in a Creator God, but accept long ages for the earth (billions of years), also accept that the Genesis Flood as either a myth or just a local area flood.

-   You might ask, “Why can’t we believe in a worldwide flood and still believe in long ages?”

-   The answer has to do with the fossil record and geologic column.



The Fossil Record is Key to Geologic Ages


How To Become A Fossil

  1. Avoid being eaten before you die.
  2. Avoid the scavengers after you die.
    1. How is this possible?…By being buried.
  3. Avoid the aerobic decomposers after you die.
    1. How is this possible?…By being deeply buried, below two feet.
  4. Avoid the anaerobic decomposers after you die.
    1. How is this possible?…By being buried even deeper.
  5. You must be buried deeply and quickly. Conditions must also be right for lithification (the formation of rock), which requires water, certain chemicals and pressure.
  6. You must then be able to get up to the surface in order to be discovered before you erode away.


Modern day geology acknowledges these requirements of fossil formation, “Rapid burial…is an important condition favoring preservation.” (6, pg. 256)


The National Science Teachers Association says the following about fossil formation: “Darwin proposed the mechanism of “gradualism,” whereby a species accumulates small changes over many generations. Improved forms would be selected while less improved forms would become extinct. Darwin hypothesized that the fossil record in rock would eventually uncover these “gradual” changes of species, showing an accurate account of their evolutionary history. Recent evidence suggests, however, that gradualism is not totally supported by new fossil finds. It seems that fossil gaps are actually not flaws in the fossil record but a true picture of how species have originated. “Punctuated equilibrium” has been proposed as an explanation that supports the fossil rock record as an accurate account of evolutionary events. Fossil records indicate many species ”maintain equilibrium” or remain unchanged and then ”suddenly” new changes happen.” (22)

-   Of course the problem with this statement is two things:

1.      It’s admitting that the fossil record does not support evolution because of the lack of transitional forms.

2.      It then goes on to say that the “real” way evolution happened is based on the fact that you don’t see transitional forms in the fossil record.

-   This argument is very convenient because the actual lack of proof that evolution is not true is now used to argue that evolution is true.

(Read Wayne’s joke about Red elephant toenails)


Here is how rare fossils actually are:

-   Approximately 95% of all earth’s fossils discovered are marine invertebrates (clams). Of the remainder, approximately 4.74% are plant fossils, 0.25% are land invertebrates (including insects), and 0.0125% are vertebrates (the majority of which are fish). Roughly 95% of all land vertebrates discovered and recorded to date consist of less than one bone. (13)


The Geologic Column


The theory of uniformitarianism was advanced by James Hutton (1726-1797) in his publication, Theory of the Earth. Hutton influenced Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875), who is credited as the father of modern geology with his work, Principles of Geology. Lyell, in turn, influenced Charles Darwin, who later wrote The Origin of Species in 1859.

-   Lyell is responsible for the general acceptance of uniformitarianism among geologists over the past 150 years.




Nineteenth century geolo­gists assembled a geologic column, which is a composite colum­nar section containing in chronological order the theoretical succession of strata, fitted together on the basis of their fossils, or other evidence of relative age.

-   Evolutionists use the fossil record as an index to determine the many long geologic ages.

-   According to evolutionists, if we found a trilobite fossil, we could assume that the sedi­ment we found it in is about 550 million years old because that is when evolutionists believe these creatures lived, died and were buried.

-   If we found a Tyrannosaurs rex fossil, we could suppose that the sediment we found it in is about 80 mil­lion years old because that is when evolutionists believe these creatures lived, died and were buried.

-   The concept is that the type of fossils found in the sediments determines the different geolog­ic ages.

(Why do they think the fossils are that old? Radiometric dating.)

Right away of course there is an obvious difficulty. If the individual strata were laid down slowly over millions of years, but fossils require rapid burial, how can the two be tied together for dating purposes?


However, if there was a worldwide flood, when would most all of these fossils have been buried?

-   Answer: They would have been buried at the same time.

-   Therefore, the fossils cannot be used as an index into the strata to determine different geologic ages because they would all point to one specific time.

-   This means that if there was a worldwide flood, the earth is not millions or billions of years old.


Uniformitarianism, together with the Geologic Column presupposed by Lyell, have been disproved by geologic features such as poly-strata fossils, misplaced fossils, missing layers and misplaced layers (including layers in reverse order or “ancient” layers found above “modern” layers).





Description of the Genesis Flood


What was Life like in the Pre-Flood World?


The pre-flood world is also referred to as the antediluvian world.

(It was no doubt very different than what life is like today.)

-   The climate was probably universally warm, pleasant, and mild.

-   There were no deserts or icecaps.

-   There was probably a more extensive land surface and less water.

-   The ground terrain was probably gentle, without the rugged mountains and deep canyons, which affect our current weather so much.

-   Lush green vegetation thrived worldwide.

-   Some of the richest oil and coal deposits are found at the North and South Pole.

-   There was also apparently no rain. The earth was watered by mist.

GE 2:6 But a mist used to rise from the earth and water the whole surface of the ground.

Genesis 2:6 (NASB)


Canopy Theory

-   A theory that before the flood there existed many times the amount of water vapor in the upper atmosphere than there is today.

-   This theory is attributed in part because of the account in Genesis 1:7.

GE 1:7 God made the expanse, and separated the waters which were below the expanse from the waters which were above the expanse; and it was so.

Genesis 1:7 (NASB)

-   A “canopy” would have created a greenhouse effect in the pre-flood world.

-   This could also help explain the longevity of man prior to the flood. Prior to the flood men would live up to 800, or 900 years old.

-   The canopy could have provided a shielding action against radiation helping prolong life.

(Studies today show that radiation does in fact speed up the aging process. The Sun affects the aging of the skin.)


Purpose of the Flood


The purpose of the flood is stated in Genesis 6:5-7, 11-13.

GE 6:5 Then the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great on the earth, and that every intent of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.

GE 6:6 The LORD was sorry that He had made man on the earth, and He was grieved in His heart.

GE 6:7 The LORD said, “ I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the land, from man to animals to creeping things and to birds of the sky; for I am sorry that I have made them.”

GE 6:11 Now the earth was corrupt in the sight of God, and the earth was filled with violence.

GE 6:12 God looked on the earth, and behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted their way upon the earth.

GE 6:13 Then God said to Noah, “ The end of all flesh has come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence because of them; and behold, I am about to destroy them with the earth.

Genesis 6:5-7, 11-13 (NASB)


God strove with people before the flood. (Strive means to devote serious effort or energy)

GE 6:3 Then the LORD said, “ My Spirit shall not strive with man forever…
Genesis 6:3 (NASB)


God is striving with people today exactly as He did before the flood. Jesus said:

LK 17:26 And just as it happened in the days of Noah, so it will be also in the days of the Son of Man:

LK 17:27 they were eating, they were drinking, they were marrying, they were being given in marriage, until the day that Noah entered the ark, and the flood came and destroyed them all.

Luke 17:26-27 (NASB)

-   There are many disturbing similarities with the world today such as: pre-occupation with physical appetites, materialistic attitudes, devotion to pleasure and comfort, ungodly conduct, disregard for the sacredness of the marriage relationship, rejection of the word of God (Noah preached for over 100 years and there were no converts, except his own family), widespread violence and corruption. (The similarities are obvious.)

-   Billy Graham states, “The same sick perversions, moral decay, and erosions are prevalent today. The Holy Spirit is mightily striving but the vast majority of the human race will not listen.” (5)


Verse 8 then says,

Ge 6:8 But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD.

Genesis 6:8 (KJV)

-   “But Noah found grace…” what a difference this conjunction makes.

(Make a comment about God’s grace in the both the old and new testaments.)


Was the Flood Worldwide?


The Scripture supports a worldwide flood because of the following reasons:

-   Because of the need for the ark to save a remnant of humanity and animal life.

-   If the flood were local than all of the effort to build the ark would have been unnecessary. Noah could have just traveled to another region instead of building an ark for 120 years.

-   Because of the wide distribution of man before the flood.

-   Cain settled in the land of Nod, which could have been as far off as China.

-   Because of the comparison made between the historical flood judgment and the coming judgment of fire in 2 Peter chapter 3, which states that as God once destroyed the world by a flood he will likewise do it by fire. (Not many would propose a local fire theory.)

-   Because if the flood were local it would mean that God lied to Noah when He promised to never again send another destructive flood.

GE 9:11 “I establish My covenant with you; and all flesh shall never again be cut off by the water of the flood, neither shall there again be a flood to destroy the earth.”

Genesis 9:11 (NASB)

(There have of course been many local destructive floods since like, Tsunami’s, Hurricanes, Rain)

-   Because of the flood traditions, which can be found in the history of every ancient civilization and culture.

-   Sir James George Frazer wrote a 3-volume work titled “Folk-Lore in the Old Testament,” which is a set of negative commentaries on Genesis, published in 1918. He was a scoffer, but the evidence that he assembled in order to try to attack Scriptural integrity really supports it.

-   Because of marine fossils found on top of mountains.

-   Because of fossil fish beds found on land and in the sea.

-   When fish die they float because of organs that help them control buoyancy.

-   For fish to fossilize they have to be rapidly buried, otherwise they will float to the surface when they die and be scavenged and decompose.


So the purpose of the flood was to destroy man from the face of the earth and all of the animals and birds.

-   Could a local flood destroy all the people, animals and birds?…No, only a global flood could do that.


How Big was Noah’s Ark? (25)


GE 6:14 “Make for yourself an ark of gopher wood; you shall make the ark with rooms, and shall cover it inside and out with pitch.

GE 6:15 “This is how you shall make it: the length of the ark three hundred cubits, its breadth fifty cubits, and its height thirty cubits.

GE 6:16 “You shall make a window for the ark, and finish it to a cubit from the top; and set the door of the ark in the side of it; you shall make it with lower, second, and third decks.

Genesis 6:14-16 (NASB)


-   One cubit is about 18 inches. Converting the Biblical measurements to standard units would make the ark about 450 feet long, 75 feet wide and 45 feet high.

-   The Queen Mary 2 is the world’s largest, longest, and tallest ocean liner in the world. It was launched in January 2004 and is 1132 feet long.

-   By comparison Noah’s ark is 40% the length of the Queen Mary II.

-   The ark, according to the specifications laid down by God, was to be 300 cubits long by 50 cubits wide by 30 cubits high.

-   The ratios of these numbers are important and reflect an advanced knowledge of shipbuilding.

-   By contrast the Babylonian flood legend mentions the boat as being a cube. A vessel shaped like a cube would simply spin slowly around. (This is ignorant in shipbuilding.)

-   The Bibles dimensions for the ark are important because the correct ratio is needed to control pitching and rolling. These ratios of length (300) to breadth (50) are 6:1.

-   The ratio of some present-day giant tankers is 7:1. You must remember that today’s ship builders have generations of ship building knowledge and advanced technology. The ark was the first of its kind.

-   Even the dimensions of the ark prove that the Bible is the Word of God.


How did All of the Animals Fit on the Ark? (25, 26)

-   How many animals were involved?

-   Ernest Mayer lists the following numbers for animal species. 3500 mammals, 8600 birds, 5500 reptiles and amphibians.

-   About 8000 genus of animals exist, including extinct genus. So about 16000 animals would have needed to be aboard the ark. (Remember the discussion on “kinds” of animals)

Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.

-   The average size of all animals is about the size of a sheep.

-   Based on livestock figures for transportation on railroad cars a stockcar can hold any of the following: 25 cattle, 150 hogs, or 240 sheep

-   The ark contains enough space for 522 stock cars.

-   Using these figures 16000 sheep sized animals would require only about 67 stock cars leaving an additional 455 empty.

-   More than ample room for Noah, the animals, and food for the year.

-    Immature animals of course could be brought instead of mature bigger animals.

-    Animals were also more than likely hibernating on the ark as well.


How Long did the Flood Last?


Rain fell for forty days (7:12)


For another 110 days the waters rose, “prevailing” for 150 days (7:24)


The waters took 74 days “going and decreasing,” from the 17th of the seventh month to the 1st day of the tenth month (8:4,5).
With 30 days to a month, the number of days were 13 plus 30 plus 30 plus 1


Forty days elapsed before Noah sent out the raven (8:6,7)


Seven days elapsed before Noah sent out the dove for the first time (8:8).
This is implied in the phrase “another seven days” (8:10)


Seven days passed before sending out the dove for the second time (8:10)


Seven days more passed before the third sending of the dove (8:12)


To this point 285 days are accounted for, but the next episode is dated the 1st of the first month in the 601st year. From the date in 7:11 to this point in 8:13 is a period of 314 days; therefore an interval of 29 days elapses


From the removal of the covering of the ark to the very end of the experience was a further 57 days (8:14)





Genesis does not describe a flood that lasted for one day.

-   The Bible states that the floodgates of heaven were opened and the fountains of the deep burst forth. It rained for 40 days and 40 nights.

GE 7:11 …the same day all the fountains of the great deep burst open, and the floodgates of the sky were opened.

GE 7:12 The rain fell upon the earth for forty days and forty nights.

Genesis 7:11-12 (NASB)


-   Concerning the “fountains of the great deep” a National Geographic article makes the following statement, “Molten rocks deep in the earths interior may be surprisingly wet, Japanese researchers say. From lab experiments, they have concluded there may be more H2O deep underground than in all oceans, lakes, and rivers combined. The researchers concluded that more water probably exists deep within the Earth than is present on Earth’s surface – as much as ten times more.” (18)

-   This is rather significant considering that the surface of the earth is covered by 70% water.


The waters lifted the Ark and all the mountains were covered by 15 cubits of water (about 20 feet). All land breathing creatures, except those on the Ark, perished.

GE 7:19 The water prevailed more and more upon the earth, so that all the high mountains everywhere under the heavens were covered.

GE 7:20 The water prevailed fifteen cubits higher, and the mountains were covered.

GE 7:21 All flesh that moved on the earth perished, birds and cattle and beasts and every swarming thing that swarms upon the earth, and all mankind;

Genesis 7:19-21 (NASB)

-   This does not sound like the description of a local flood.


Water and Gravity


If a glass of water is poured on a table what happens to the water?

-   Answer: The water starts to spread out and it continues to spread until something stops it.

-   The water does not stay in a nice, neat pile because of gravity.

-   Gravity is exerting a force on the water causing it to spread out over the table until something stops it.


(Going back to the description of the Genesis Flood.)

…the same day all the fountains of the great deep burst open, and the floodgates of the sky were opened. The rain fell upon the earth for forty days and forty nights.

-   While all of this was happening, gravity was exerting a force on the water causing it to spread out until something stopped it.

-   But as we read in the Flood descrip­tion, there was nothing to stop the water because the water cov­ered the mountains by over 20 feet.


How could the water rise above the mountains by 20 feet and still be a local flood?

-   Water seeks its own level. Therefore, this can­not be a local area flood unless we try to do away with gravity and the characteristics of water.

-   How could the water rise to cover the local mountains and leave the rest of the world untouched?

-   When we take a scientific approach to the description of the flood in the Bible, the result is that it was a worldwide flood.


God’s Everlasting Covenant


In Genesis chapter 9, God makes an everlasting covenant.

GE 9:8 Then God spoke to Noah and to his sons with him, saying,

GE 9:9 “Now behold, I Myself do establish My covenant with you, and with your descendants after you;

GE 9:10 and with every living creature that is with you, the birds, the cattle, and every beast of the earth with you; of all that comes out of the ark, even every beast of the earth.

GE 9:11 “I establish My covenant with you; and all flesh shall never again be cut off by the water of the flood, neither shall there again be a flood to destroy the earth.”

GE 9:16 “When the bow is in the cloud, then I will look upon it, to remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that is on the earth.”

Genesis 9:8-11, 16 (NASB)


If we interpret the Genesis Flood to be a local flood, then God’s everlasting covenant is meaningless because we have had many devastating local floods throughout the world since then.

-   The only interpretation that is consistent with God’s everlasting covenant is that it was a worldwide flood, since there has never been another flood that has covered the entire earth.


Biblical Conclusion


The Bible supports a worldwide flood, not a local flood.

-   This means that long geologic ages do not agree with the Bible.

-   Now we must ask the questions:

1.      What does the geologic evidence support, long ages or young earth?

2.      Is there any geologic evidence to support the Biblical account of a worldwide flood?


Geologic Evidence for a Worldwide Flood


Evidence from Marine Fossils


Marine fossils are found on the mountaintops of every continent.

-   Mount Everest has marine fossils near its peak.

-   The Alps in Austria contain marine fossils.

-   Whale fossils have been found over 400 feet above sea level north of lake Ontario, more than 500 feet above sea level in Vermont, and 600 feet above sea level in Montreal.

-   Whale fossils are also found in the Andes Mountains of South America in mass whale graveyards indicating rapid burial. At different locations in Peru over 500 whale fossils have been found. In the photo below of the hill Cerro Queso Grande over 60 whale fossils were found. Of all of the fossils found there is no evidence of scavenging or predatory attacks. (27, pg. 1)


How did all these marine fossils get up on the mountains?

-   The only answer is that at one time in the history of the earth, all of these mountains had to be covered with water.


There are two explanations for how the ocean waters covered the mountains.

1.      Biblical explanation: The Genesis worldwide flood.

2.      Evolution explanation: The continents sank underneath the oceans and came back up.


There are nearly 300 legends of a worldwide flood. There are no legends of continents sinking beneath the ocean. Also, no one ever observed or recorded a continent sinking.


Evidence from Fossil Graveyards


Vast fossil graveyards are found all over the world. Sometimes there are thousands, or more, creatures buried and fossilized together.

-   How does something get fossilized? Not by long, slow processes. An organism must be covered rapidly by the sediments to keep out scavengers and oxygen.

-   It would take a catastrophic event to bury thousands of animals in these graveyards, which are located all over the world. Large fossil graveyards have been discovered in New Mexico, Canada, Wyoming, Tanzania, Belgium, Mongolia, the Gobi Desert of Central Asia, and many other places.

-   Pictured on the right is the Morrison Formation (sedimentary rock), extending from Canada into New Mexico.

-   The most common fossils are clams found in the closed position. Snail fossils are also found.

-   How do so many creatures all get buried and fossilized in one location? It would take a large catastrophic event to bury so many animals quickly, and these fossil graveyards are found worldwide. This is consistent with the Biblical description of the Genesis Flood.


Geologic Processes


When we turn to our geology books, we are led to believe that large canyons take thou­sands or millions of years to form by rivers running through them. Is this true?


Pyroclastic Flows - Mount Saint Helens


On May 18, 1980 the volcano Mount Saint Helens erupted.

-   At 8:32 am an earthquake of magnitude 5.1 struck Mount St. Helens. This resulted in the largest observed landslide in history.

-   The entire side of the mountain slid down into Spirit Lake caus­ing a wave over 800 feet high onto the north shore of the lake.

-   Following the volcanic blast came tremendous pyroclastic flows (hot gas mixed with volcanic fragments) moving down the moun­tain at speeds of over 70 miles per hour with temperatures over 800 degrees.

-   In addition to the pyroclastic flows, there were tremendous mudflows that occurred because of all the snow and ice on top of the mountain that suddenly melted.

-   These mudflows flowed off the mountain at over 50 miles per hour with such force that some extended for over 20 miles past the mountain.


What was the effect of all this devastation?

-   Many large canyons were created in a very short time.

-   One of these canyons was nicknamed the “Little Grand Canyon” because its formations resemble that of the Grand Canyon.

-   It is one-fortieth the size of the Grand Canyon. The canyon has plateaus that resemble the north and south rims of the Grand Canyon. It also has side canyons that resemble side canyons found in the Grand Canyon.

-   The question is, “How long did it take to make this canyon?”…One day. This fact should call into question the necessity for long ages to make large canyons.


The Scablands in Eastern Washington


In the eastern part of Washington state there is a large barren area of solid rock called the Scablands.

-   Throughout the Scablands are many channels and canyons. Some of these canyons are hundreds of feet deep and extend for over 15 miles in length.

-   The locals call these long, deep channels “coulees.”

-   Grand Coulee is a well-known channel in the Scablands that contains the Grand Coulee Dam.


The naturalistic interpretation for how chan­nels and canyons form is by long, slow processes.

-   For the Scablands it would be rivers carving these formations over millions of years.

-   In the early 1900’s, geologist J. Harlan Bretz suggested a catastrophic flood as the cause of the channels and canyons of the Scablands.


Some scientists today fully accept­ the idea that canyons can be formed by catastrophic events in a short period and that long ages are not necessary.

-   The United States Geological Survey states the following on their website: “Such catastrophic floods raced across the southward-dipping plateau a number of times, etching the coulees which characterize this region, now known as the channeled scablands.” (7)


-   “U.S. Geological Survey experts have estimated the flow near the dam breach at 10 times more than the combined flow of all the rivers in the world.” (8)


-   Stephen Jay Gould makes the following statements:

-   “I have questioned the gradualist orthodoxy before…in biological terms. I have argued that gradualism is a culturally conditioned prejudice, not a fact of nature, and I have made a plea for pluralism in concepts of rate. Punctuational change is at least as important as imperceptible accumulation.” (9, pg. 15)


-   “Dogmas play their worst role when they lead scientists to reject beforehand a counterclaim that could be tested in nature.” (9, pg. 15)


-   “Charles Lyell, the godfather of geologic gradualism, had pulled a fast one in establishing the doctrine of imperceptible change. He had argued that geologists must invoke the invariance (uniformity) of natural law through time in order to study the past scientifically. He then applied the same term – uniformity – to an empirical claim about rates of processes, arguing that change must be slow, steady, and gradual, and that big results can only arise as the accumulation of small changes.” (9, pg. 17)


I agree with Gould. The evidence does not indicate slow processes, rather quick change.


Grand Canyon


The steady-state explanation is that the Colorado River took millions of years to form the Grand Canyon.


However, there are some problems with this interpretation.

-   In the picture on the right the red line shows a geologic unconformity.

-   An unconformity represents a time in the geologic column where rock layers are missing.

-   This unconformity in the Grand Canyon divides rock layers with fossils from those with no fossils.

-   Unconformities are found everywhere across the world.

-   According to the USGS this unconformity in the Grand Canyon is around a 1.2 billion year gap.

-   There is no sign of ero­sion between the two layers, which means they were laid down rapidly one on top of the other.


-   How could a river that is only several hundred feet wide have enough energy to carve out the Grand Canyon, which is over 15 miles wide at parts?

(We just looked at this with the scablands) (Put up comparison transparency’s)

-   Where are all the sediments that the Colorado River supposedly pushed out to make the canyon?

-   The answer is that the sediments are more than 15 miles out into the gulf.

-   It would take a catastrophic movement of water to push this much sediment that far out into the gulf.


-   Why does the canyon contain hundreds of thousands of square miles of parallel strata? If the canyon took mil­lions of years to form, then there should be signs of ero­sion between the strata, but they are not there.

-   Parallel strata are formed by large amounts of rapidly running water and mud flows, as observed from Mount Saint Helens, and underwater landslides. (Draw out the plastic nature of the strata and how it formed)


-   The top, surface layer is the Kaibab Limestone and is dated to 250 million years ago.

-   How can the top surface layer of the Grand Canyon be dated to 250 million years ago?

-   What’s been happening for the past 250 million years?


-   Finally, the Native Indian population (Havasupai Tribe) has a local flood legend to describe the formation of the Grand Canyon.

-   “Before there were any people on earth there were two gods. Tochapa of goodness and Hokomata of evil. Tochapa had a daughter named Pu-keh-eh, whom he hoped would become the mother of all living. Hokomata the evil was determined that no such thing should take place, and he covered the world with a great flood. Tochapa the good felled a great tree and hollowed out the trunk. He placed Pu-keh-eh in the hollowed trunk and when the water rose and flooded the earth she was secure in her improvised boat. Finally the flood waters fell and mountain peaks emerged. Rivers were created; and one of them cut the great gushing fissure, which became the Grand Canyon. Pu-keh-eh in her log came to rest on the new earth. She stepped forth and beheld an empty world. When the land became dry, a great golden sun rose in the east and warmed the earth and caused her to conceive. In time, she gave birth to a male child. Later a waterfall caused her to conceive and she gave birth to a girl. From the union of these two mortal children came all the people on the earth. The first were the Havasupai, and the voice of Tochapa spoke to them and told them to live forever in peace in their canyon of good earth and pure water where there would always be plenty for all!” (23)

-   This of course is a recognizable version of the worldwide flood of Noah’s day.


The conclusion about the Grand Canyon is that the geological evidence supports a rapid formation and not millions of years.


Rapid Sedimentation


Most textbooks claim that when we observe many thin layers of sediment (called lamina), sometimes only millimeters thick, that it took a season, a year, or years to lay each of the layers down.

-   The picture on the right shows a canyon containing thousands of thin layers. If someone did not know when it was formed, the naturalistic interpretation might be that the canyon is thousands of years old.

-   However, this canyon was formed in one day by a mud­flow from Mount St. Helens in 1982.


Note the thin layers of sedimentation in the Mt. Saint Helens’ canyon, which were formed rapidly.


(Liquefaction and turbidites are two more observable evidences for rapid sedimentation.)




Liquefaction is the process of making or becoming liquid. During earthquakes water saturated sedi­ments can break apart and form into a thick mud. (Like wiggling your toes in wet sand)

-   The liquefied sediment not only moves about beneath the surface but may also rise through fissures and erupt as mud boils and mud vol­canoes.

-   Slight differences in density, size, or shape of particles will cause them to fall at slightly different speeds. Their relative positions will change until the water’s velocity drops below a certain speed or until nearly identical sized particles are adja­cent to each other, so they will fall at the same speed.

-   This sorting produces the layering typical in sedimentary rocks.


A worldwide flood would have caused massive liquefaction to occur and leave thinly layered sediments rapidly.


Liquefaction has been observed in many recent earthquakes. Some of these earthquakes include:

-   Alaska, 1964

-   Niigata, Japan, 1964

-   Loma Prieta, USA, 1989

-   Kobe, Japan, 1995




Turbidites are the result of catastrophic water currents resulting in under­water landslides.

-   In 1927, an earthquake triggered an underwa­ter landslide off the coast of Newfoundland, Canada. The underwater avalanche covered an area of 40,000 square miles leaving a three-foot deposit of sediment in just hours.

-   The result was a layer of sediment laid down rapidly.

-   Turbidites are similar in character to many solidified rocks that have been studied in the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains, which geologists thought had been deposited by calm waters.

-   They now rec­ognize that many, if not most of the rocks on land, are actu­ally the result of turbidites.

-   A layer, called the Tapeats Sandstone, covers most of North America.

-   It would have taken a great underwa­ter event to create such a for­mation.


Summary of Geologic Processes


We have just covered four observable actions that create rapid sedimentation over large areas, 1) Rapid erosion, 2) Pyroclastic flows, 3) Liquefaction, and 4) Turbidites.

-   None of these geologic actions require long periods of time and all four are known to have caused most of the sedi­mentation on the earth.


Now we need to ask the question: Are long periods of time necessary for what we observe geologically?

-   The answer is no.

-   It has been observed that large canyons can form rapidly. It is also known that many thin layers (lamina) can form rapidly.


Similar to Stephen Jay Gould’s comments above, Warren D. Allmon (Cornell University) in Science magazine writes the following about uniformitarianism, “As is now increasingly acknowledged, however, Lyell also sold geology some snake oil. He convinced geologists that because physical laws are constant in time and space and current processes should be consulted before resorting to unseen processes, it necessarily follows that all past processes acted at essentially their current rates (that is, those observed in historical time). This extreme gradualism has led to numerous unfortunate consequences, including the rejection of sudden or catastrophic events in the face of positive evidence for them, for no reason other than that they were not gradual.” (12, pg. 122).


But what about other geological events such as coal and oil formation?


Coal Formation


Coal formation from an evolutionary perspective:

-   Coal was formed from plant life buried in the Earth millions of years ago. “The Coal Age,” which ended about 280 million years ago, was when the great coal beds of the world formed. After the plant life died, it fell into swamp water where it partially decomposed into a slimy, colloidal mass and formed peat. As the seas advanced and receded in cycles over the earth, they deposited heavy layers of sandstone, shale, and other rocks on top of the peat. The increased pressure caused the buried peat to dry and harden into coal. (10, pg.518)

-   Most coal deposits occur in the same geologic strata known as the Carboniferous period.

-   A coal seam is a flat layer having the same surface area as the swamp in which it originally accumulated.


The Great Dismal Swamp in Virginia and North Carolina is one of the largest modern peat swamps. It contains an average thick­ness of 6-feet of peat.

-   However, unless this swamp lasts for mil­lions of years, even it’s dense growth is insufficient to produce a coal seam as thick as some of the seams in Pennsylvania.

-   Individual coal beds range in thickness from a few inches to 800 feet (10, pg. 643)


There is strong evidence against long ages for coal formation.

-   Polystrate fossils, tree fossils that sometimes span many coal seems (over 30 feet tall), are found all over the world.

-   If coal took millions of years to form, then none of these polystrate fossils should be there. They would have rotted in just years. This is observable evidence that coal can form rapidly. Other scientists have noted that the trees found in coal beds did not grow there, they were most likely washed there by some cata­strophic event, such as a flood.

-   If coal is formed by slow natural processes why aren’t there deposits at all levels, instead of primarily at the “Carboniferous Level?”


The devastation at Mount St. Helens (the blast, landslide, giant water wave, mud flows, etc.) caused many trees from the dense forest around the mountain to be washed into Spirit Lake, estimates up to one million logs.

-   Over the past 20 years, many of these logs have turned upright and sunk to the bottom of the lake. Scuba divers have been to the bottom of the lake and noted that the trees have their roots cut just like the polystrate fossils found in coal beds.

-   None of those trees grew at the bottom of Spirit Lake; they were all washed there by the catastrophic event.

-   It has also been observed that a three-foot-thick layer of peat has formed at the bottom of the lake from a mixture of bark and other elements.


The naturalistic explanation is that it takes thousands of years for swamp vegetation to decay and slow­ly turn to peat and then millions of years for the peat to slowly turn to coal.

-   We now know this is not true, it can happen in a very short time as evidenced at Mount Saint Helens.

-   Experiments by Dr. George R. Hill and Dr. Don C. Adams at the University of Utah have shown that plant matter can be turned into coal in a matter of hours. (24, pg. 296)


Do we need long ages for what we observe geologically?…No.


Oil Formation


Oil formation from an evolutionary perspective:

-   “Complete agreement has not yet been reached as to how liquid petroleum is produced in nature. It is generally believed that the remains of the plants and animals, when buried in mud, develop a reducing environment which protects them from destruction by oxidation.” (19, pg. 641)


-   “Geologists generally agree that crude oil was formed over millions of years from the remains of tiny aquatic plants and animals that lived in ancient seas. There may be bits of brontosaurus thrown in for good measure, but petroleum owes its existence largely to one-celled marine organisms. As these organisms died, they sank to the seabed. Usually buried with sand and mud, they formed an organic-rich layer that eventually turned to sedimentary rock.” (20)


In 1971, in an article titled “Converting Organic Wastes to Oil,” published by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Hayden R Appell, Y. C. Fu and Sam Friedman reported that petroleum can be produced from organic mat­ter in only 20 minutes.



A $22.4 million proposal was approved in Western Australia for the world’s first plant to make oil from sewage sludge. The sludge is heated without oxygen to 4500 C in one reactor, and then in a second reactor, the resultant vapors are allowed to con­tact the residue from the first. This speeds up their break­down into a diesel grade fuel oil. The process, which requires no outside substances, essentially involves heating without oxygen.

The technology, described as one that “mimics nature,” produces oil in much the same way that nature produces oil, but is completed in around 30 minutes.


Again, do we need long ages for what we observe geologically?…No.





Long Geological Ages?


The idea that long ages are necessary to describe the earth’s his­tory is unfounded. It is not Biblical nor is it based on observable science. The necessity for long ages only comes from the idea of evolution. Each of the following geologic features has been observed or can be explained in short time periods.

-   Coal and Oil

-   The formation of large canyons in days vs. millions of years

-   Sedimentation being laid down in days vs. millions of years

-   Nearly all of the great mountain areas of the world have been found to have marine fossils near their summits. A conclusion drawn from this observation is that the mountains have all been uplifted essentially simultaneously and quite recently.

-   Even secular scientists are beginning to question the theories of uniformitarianism (Gould and Allman).


The Bible warns that in the last days scoffers will come who willfully forget the doctrine of judgment and ignore the Biblical account of a worldwide flood.

2PE 3:3 Know this first of all, that in the last days mockers will come with their mocking, following after their own lusts,

2PE 3:4 and saying, “ Where is the promise of His coming? For ever since the fathers fell asleep, all continues just as it was from the beginning of creation.”

2PE 3:5 For when they maintain this, it escapes their notice that by the word of God the heavens existed long ago and the earth was formed out of water and by water,

2PE 3:6 through which the world at that time was destroyed, being flooded with water.

2 Peter 3:3-6 (NASB)


Do we need long ages to support what we observe geological­ly?

-   The answer is NO!

-   The creation of geologic structures and for­mations can be explained as the result of catastrophic events in a short time period.


Is it possible to combine the Bible and evolution?

Did God use evolution as part of His creative process?

-   Not according to the Bible and the description of the Genesis Flood.

-   The Bible clearly supports a worldwide flood, which eliminates the possibility of long ages.






1.      It Matters What We Believe by Mike Riddle, 2003

2.      It All begins with Genesis by Sheila Richardson, 2002

3.      The New Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible by James Strong (1822-1894), 1996

4.      Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine by Dr. Wayne Grudem, 1994

5.      The Holy Spirit by Billy Graham, 1988

6.      Earth Science by Edward Tarbuck and Frederick Lutgens, 1988

7.      USGS online at

8.      Associated Press (Boston News) article Experts Seek Trail to mark Ice Age Floods, 11/10/03

9.      Natural History article The Great Scablands Debate by Stephen Jay Gould, Aug/Sept 1978

10.  Compton’s Encyclopedia, Volume 5, 1994

11.  Collier’s Encyclopedia, Volume 6, 1997

12.  Science magazine article Post Gradualism, October 1, 1993

13.  Back to Genesis article Does the Geologic Column Prove Evolution? by John D. Morris, July 1994

14.  Compton’s Encyclopedia, Volume 25, 1994

15.  NASA online at

16.  Science News magazine article Water for the rock; did the Earth’s oceans come from the heavens?, March 23, 2002

17.  National Geographic News article Did Comets Make Life on Earth Possible?, 10/2/03

18.  National Geographic News article Inner Earth May Hold More Water Than the Seas, 3/7/02

19.  Collier’s Encyclopedia, Volume 18, 1997

20.  Chevron online at

21.  Edge Foundation, Inc. online at

22.  A Framework for High School Science Education, Fossil Formation by National Science Teachers Association, 1996

23.  Grand Canyon Legend online at

24.  Aspects of Coal Research by George Hill, 1972

25.  Liberty Home Bible Institute, The Creation Stage (cassette tape) by Dr. H.L. Willmington, 1976

26.  The Answers Book edited by Don Batten, 1990

27.  Geoscience Reports article Preservation of Baleen Whales in Southern Peru, Fall 2002

28.  Impact article Dinosaur National Monument: Jurassic Park or Jurassic Jumble?, April 2004



Plate Tectonics (Pangaea vs. Bible verse on land rising and sinking)

-   Shouldn’t the weather have eroded the Himalayas quicker than they can rise if plate tectonics is true? Likewise is erosion quicker than sedimentation?


Dating Methods (Index Fossils vs. Strata Layer vs. Radiometric)

-   If the earth is so old why are there still radioactive materials left?


Dinosaurs (Job, Dragon Legends, Evidence of living with people)