chapter one, we are introduced to the Angel of Lord, who
intercedes on the behalf Jerusalem
and Judah (1:12). The people of the land are called to repent
and not imitate the ways of the their forefathers who the Lord
rejected from the land.
chapter one we see the Lord’s intervention against the Gentile
powers, the nations, who scatter the inhabitants of Jerusalem,
God however intervenes sending His carpenters (craftsmen)
against the nations, who oppose His people.
1 In the eighth
month of the second year of Darius, the word of the Lord came to
Zechariah the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo the prophet,
saying, 2 "The Lord has been very angry with your fathers. 3
"Therefore say to them, 'Thus says the Lord of hosts: "Return to
Me," says the Lord of hosts, "and I will return to you," says
the Lord of hosts. 4 "Do not be like your fathers, to whom the
former prophets preached, saying, 'Thus says the Lord of hosts:
"Turn now from your evil ways and your evil deeds." ' But they
did not hear nor heed Me," says the Lord. 5 "Your fathers, where
are they? And the prophets, do they live forever? 6 Yet surely
My words and My statutes, Which I commanded My servants the
prophets, Did they not overtake your fathers? "So they returned
and said: 'Just as the Lord of hosts determined to do to us,
According to our ways and according to our deeds, So He has
dealt with us.' " ' " Zechariah 1:1-6
Eighth month: is equivalent
to October/November in our calendar. This was about one month
before Haggai received his final vision. (Haggai 2:10,20)
Second year of Darius: takes place in
520 B.C., it is during this period Darius was securing his
kingdom following the revolts throughout his kingdom after the
death of Cambyses.
Word of the Lord: Zechariah uses this term thirteen times, occurring in eight
of the 14 chapters. The Hebrew word, rbdDabar meaning speech or word, the Greek equivalent is logos.
Zechariah is telling the reader they are hearing what the LORD,(YHWH)
revealed to Zechariah. The message is God’s word, through
Zechariah the son…Iddo: Zechariah here is identified as son of “Berechiah”, while in
other locations, he is called just “son of Iddo”. One reason
for this could be his father Berechiah died at an early age, and
his grandfather Iddo took care of him. Iddo is identified as
one to the returning priests in Nehemiah 12:4,16. It is very
likely Zechariah was young and returned with his grandfather to
Jerusalem in 538 B.C. If he were a young man at the return, he
would be 18 years older, making him about 30 to 40 years old.
Angry…fathers: The reason the Jews were in Babylon was
because they transgressed the Covenant, causing the Lord
to bring judgment on the descendents (forefathers) of those in
Jerusalem. Prophets such as Jeremiah, Isaiah, Hosea and Amos
warned both Israel and Judah of the Lord’s impending judgment
however, they were rejected.
Return to me: Zechariah’s
message required Judah and Jerusalem to react. The message is
conditional; the Lord is asking the inhabitants of the land to
“Return”, to change their ways, to not be like their forefathers
who rejected the message sent via the prophets. For example,
through Isaiah, the Lord offered both Israel
and Judah and opportunity to avert judgment, his calls were not
heeded by most.
18 "Come now,
and let us reason together," Says the Lord, "Though your sins
are like scarlet, They shall be as white as snow; Though they
are red like crimson, They shall be as wool. 19 If you are
willing and obedient, You shall eat the good of the land;
prophets: The people
refused the Lord’s offer made by the prophets therefore; they
received the Lord’s judgment. The Lord is warning the
descendents do not follow their example.
(6) My words: The
words of the Lord happened exactly as foretold. God asks the
question regarding the fathers, “where are they“? The prophets
and the fathers are gone, but the Lord’s word endures. The
introduction here is a reminder to the descendents, to heed the
message of the “Word of the Lord”, to put the words to action,
as contrasted to their forefathers who received judgment.
of the Horses
7 On the
twenty-fourth day of the eleventh month, which is the month
Shebat, in the second year of Darius, the word of the Lord came
to Zechariah the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo the prophet:
8 I saw by night, and behold, a man riding on a red horse, and
it stood among the myrtle trees in the hollow; and behind him
were horses: red, sorrel, and white. 9 Then I said, "My lord,
what are these?" So the angel who talked with me said to me, "I
will show you what they are." 10 And the man who stood among the
myrtle trees answered and said, "These are the ones whom the
Lord has sent to walk to and fro throughout the earth." 11 So
they answered the Angel of the Lord, who stood among the myrtle
trees, and said, "We have walked to and fro throughout the
earth, and behold, all the earth is resting quietly."
Eleventh month…Shebat: The date here
is February 19th, 519 B.C., this date follows Zechariah initial call by three months.
At this point, Haggai last revelation had taken place two months
earlier. Now God was about to continue his “Word” through
Shebat , the term is Chaldee, meaning a
"shoot," namely, the month when trees begin to shoot or bud.
year…Darius: The second year
of Darius reign would be the 519 B.C at this point.
Word of the
Lord: The whole
revelation is from the Lord, so the “Word” includes the whole
message, visual and spoken. This is the LORD’s revelation for
I Saw: Zechariah is reporting what he sees in the vision. Zechariah
like John and Ezekiel are reporting revelation of events taking
place in the spiritual realms. John in Revelation, like
Zechariah reported what he saw. Both Ezekiel, and John report
being in the Spirit, and revealing what they “Saw’. (See also
Ezekiel 1;1,27,28, 8:4,10, Revelation 5:1,2, 6:1,)
Immediately I was in the Spirit; and behold, a throne set in
heaven, and One sat on the throne. 4 Around the throne were
twenty-four thrones, and on the thrones I saw twenty-four elders
sitting, clothed in white robes; and they had crowns of gold on
their heads. Revelation 4:2,4
(8) A man
riding: Here through
Zechariah eyes we are given insight into the spiritual realms.
The prophet reports seeing a man, throughout scripture angels
are presented as appearing as men, in human form. Here we see
“a man” riding a horse. For example, appearing at the tent of
Abraham was three men, two men are angels who go on to destroy
Sodom and one is the Lord (Genesis 18:1-2) Ezekiel also
describes an angel as a man in several locations, in Ezekiel 40
the “man” had the appearance as bronze. (See also Ezekiel 9:1)
He took me there, and behold, there was a man whose appearance
was like the appearance of bronze. He had a line of flax and a
measuring rod in his hand, and he stood in the gateway.
and Daniel also had communication with angles who appeared in
human form, as men. Gabriel is described by Daniel as appearing
as a man, who was dispatched from Heaven to answer Daniel’s
prayer (Daniel 9:21). John in fact is rebuked by the angel who accompanies him,
when he falls down in worship, before the angel(Revelation19:10).
Then I, Daniel, looked; and there stood two others, one on this
riverbank and the other on that riverbank. 6 And one said to the
man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river,
"How long shall the fulfillment of these wonders be?" Daniel
man riding the Red horse by all accounts is the Angel of the
Lord, who the other riders, on red, white and sorrel horses
Red horse: The
“Angel of the Lord” is the “man” described riding the red
horse. We know this from verses 10 and 11, which identify the
man standing among the myrtle trees as the Angel of the Lord.
The meaning of the colors here is not exact, since there is no
specific explanation, within the text itself, we can only
speculate. We see a “red’ horse also in Zechariah 6:2 and
Revelation 6:4, in Revelation the horse symbolizes war.
Another horse, fiery red, went out. And it was granted to the
one who sat on it to take peace from the earth, and that people
should kill one another; and there was given to him a great
sword. Revelation 6:4
color red, Jamieson- Fausett- Brown
Bible Commentary writes,
horse--the color that represents bloodshed: implying vengeance
to be inflicted on the foes of Israel
(compare 2 Kings 3:22, Isaiah 63:1,2,
This very well
could represent the Angel of the Lord riding the red horse of
“war” interceding on the behalf of Jerusalem. The Angel of Lord
is the one who slew 185,000 of the Assyrians who had assembled
Myrtle trees: The
horse stops in the valley, or “Hollow” occupied with Myrtle
trees. Zechariah is in the vicinity, able to hear the
conversation between the Angel of the Lord and the other
angels. Eugene Merrill comments on the meaning of the Myrtle
myrtle (Myrtus communis) is particularly appropriate element of
this vision. A fragrant, decorative shrub that sometimes reaches
the size of a tree, it was used in connection with the Feast
of Tabernacles and in post-biblical times in betrothal
celebrations. Its perpetual greenness and araomatic and other
qualities provided a suitable setting for the inauguration of
YHWH’s dominion, which is everlasting and pleasant in every way.
Hollow: The “red horse” and its rider stopped in a valley or ravine
which was populated by Myrtle trees.
Following the “Red” horse with the rider were other horses, who
from the context of the conversation also had riders, because a
dialogue was carried on by the myrtle trees, between the Angel
of the Lord and the riders which followed.
white: Three horses
followed the “first” red one, these horses by the context of
verse 11 also had riders, and they answer the Angel of the Lord
and report to him, “we have walked”. What the colors represent
can only be speculation, based on what has been defined earlier.
These angels who ride these horses seem to be watchers reporting
to the Angel of the Lord, they may also as in Revelation 6:1-8
be instruments of judgment.
(9) I said,
"My lord”: Zechariah is watching this scene takes place, he is with an
angel, not the Angel of the Lord, but an angel who is
accompanying and interpreting events taking place. At this point
he turns and asks what is taking place. He calls the angel
“lord”, meaning, (!wda'adown) the angel is his superior.
the angel who
talked with me: Through out the
event the interpreting angel serves as Zechariah’s tour guide,
"I will show
you what they are.": The meaning of the horses and their riders is not subject to
interpretation, because the scene is interpreted within.
Following this statement by the angel who is with Zechariah, the
Angel of the Lord, replies to Zechariah’s question.
(10) the man
who stood among the myrtle trees: In three
verses, the myrtle trees are mentioned, and the man standing
among them is the rider of the red horse, who was followed by
three other horses, red, white and sorrel. He now answers
Zechariah’s question about the identity of the horses and their
"These are the
ones whom the Lord has sent to walk to and fro throughout the
earth." Vs. 10
Walk to and
fro: This scene
gives us a glimpse into the spiritual realms, here we see angels
monitoring the situation on the earth. The phrase, “walking to
and fro” is a similar one used in Job, Satan describes his
activity of searching the world, to assault the righteous.
These angels serve the role of scouts, who are reporting to
their commander about the current situation. Their commander
being, the Angel of the Lord.
And the Lord said to Satan, "From where do you come?" So Satan
answered the Lord and said, "From going to and fro on the earth,
and from walking back and forth on it." Job 1:7
similar way, these angels also “walk to and fro” reporting to
the Angel of the Lord about events taking place. Ephesians
illustrates this conflict in the spiritual realms,
12 For we do not
wrestle against flesh and blood, but against principalities,
against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this age,
against spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places.
only three books of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) is Satan
mentioned, I Chronicles, Job and Zechariah.
In Zechariah 3, Satan accuses the High Priest, Joshua,
Satan is opposed by the Angel of the Lord, who
they answered: They reported
to the Angel of the Lord, that the world is resting quietly,
while at this time the exiles who have returned from Babylon
under constant threat by the nations who are resting quietly.
The Lord will
12 Then the
Angel of the Lord answered and said, "O Lord of hosts, how long
will You not have mercy on Jerusalem and on the cities of Judah,
against which You were angry these seventy years?" 13 And the
Lord answered the angel who talked to me, with good and
comforting words. 14 So the angel who spoke with me said to me,
"Proclaim, saying, 'Thus says the Lord of hosts: "I am zealous
And for Zion with great zeal. 15 I am exceedingly angry with the
nations at ease; For I was a little angry, And they helped-but
with evil intent." 16 'Therefore thus says the Lord: "I am
returning to Jerusalem
with mercy; My house shall be built in it," says the Lord of
hosts, "And a surveyor's line shall be stretched out over Jerusalem."
' 17 "Again proclaim, saying, 'Thus says the Lord of hosts: "My
cities shall again spread out through prosperity; The Lord will
again comfort Zion, And will again choose Jerusalem." ' "
Angel of the Lord: Here, the Angel
of the Lord plays an intercessory role, interceding on the
behalf of Jerusalem. He appeals to the Lord of Hosts, the
Father. The nations are at rest, while the descendents of Jacob
are under threat. The Angel of the Lord plays an active role
with the children of Israel in their history, leading them
through the wilderness,(Judges 2:1), commanding the lord’s army,
lead by Joshua (Joshua 5:13-15), destroying the Assyrian army which threatened Jerusalem
Here the Angel of Lord takes on the role of intercessor for the
city of Jerusalem and its inhabitants, the descendents of the
Jacob, live under constant threat, while the Gentile nations are
Seventy years: The Temple
was destroyed in 586 B.C. and at this point, 519 B.C. it still
was not rebuilt, because the enemies of Judah opposed the
rebuilding. The period of Judgment against Judah lasted seventy
years, ending with Cyrus who freed the captives allowing them to
return, back to Jerusalem and Judah.
Temple however still lay in ruins even though the seventy-years
had passed on the judgment of the people and city. Seventy
years had not quite passed on the Temple.
the people to holiness, to return to the Lord, so he could
return to them.
To complete theTemple,
the people needed to be Holy.
Exactly 70-years after the Temple was destroyed the second one
is completed in 516 B.C.
(13) The Lord: The Angel of the Lord, is here called hwhyY’hovah,
He gives the reply from the Lord of Hosts, to Zechariah’s
accompanying angel. Zechariah is told to proclaim the message,
revealed to him through his angel.
The relationship between Jerusalem
and the Lord is restored. The Temple will be completed,
Jerusalem will one day be inhabited as in the past, and cities
spread throughout the land. (Vs. 17)
(14) Angel who
spoke with me: This is not the Angel of the Lord, but the angel who is explaining
to Zechariah what events are taking place. He is relying the
message from the Angel of the Lord, to his accompanying angel.
angel tells Zechariah, to proclaim ( arq Qara')
, meaning to cry or call out the message. This is precisely
what Zechariah does, and under his proclamation, the Temple is
Zealous Jerusalem: The plans for Jerusalem and
the Lord’s love of Jerusalem are a major focus in the book of
Zechariah. The reason the city and its inhabitants were judged
is because they sinned against the Lord, and rejected his
warnings. The Lord warned Jerusalem through prophets like
Jeremiah about the impending disaster, resulting from sin. It’s
the Lord’s love of Jerusalem and his righteousness which caused
him to act.
9 And the Lord
said to me, "A conspiracy has been found among the men of Judah
and among the inhabitants of Jerusalem. 10 "They have turned
back to the iniquities of their forefathers who refused to hear
My words, and they have gone after other gods to serve them; the
house of Israel and the house of Judah have broken My covenant
which I made with their fathers." 11 Therefore thus says the
Lord: "Behold, I will surely bring calamity on them which they
will not be able to escape; and though they cry out to Me, I
will not listen to them.
(15) Angry: The
nation of Babylon was used as an instrument of judgment againstJudah
and Jerusalem. The sins of the land caused the judgment, but
the actions by the nations were based on evil intent. They are
now at ease and relaxed as reported by the angels riding the
horses. While the inhabitants of Judah, are under threat, those
nations which the Lord used to judge Israel are at ease.
to Jerusalem:The Lord’s relationship with Jerusalem is
restored, he will now be involved in Jerusalem.
My house: The
Temple with only a foundation will be completed. Darius in
conjunction with Zechariah and Haggai, searches the Persian
archives and finds the command given by Cyrus. All opposition to
building the Temple,
by the enemies of Judah stop, the way to rebuild is now cleared.
11 Also I issue
a decree that whoever alters this edict, let a timber be pulled
from his house and erected, and let him be hanged on it; and let
his house be made a refuse heap because of this. 12 And may the
God who causes His name to dwell there destroy any king or
people who put their hand to alter it, or to destroy this house
of God which is in Jerusalem. I Darius issue a decree; let it be
done diligently. 13 Then Tattenai, governor of the region beyond
the River, Shethar-Boznai, and their companions diligently did
according to what King Darius had sent. 14 So the elders of the
Jews built, and they prospered through the prophesying of Haggai
the prophet and Zechariah the son of Iddo. And they built and
finished it, according to the commandment of the God of Israel,
and according to the command of Cyrus, Darius, and Artaxerxes
king of Persia. Ezra 6:11-14
threatened death to all how opposed the building of the Temple.
Zechariah gives us a glimpse into the spiritual realms. It was
during this period of time the armies of Persia marched through
Israel on their way to subdue the Egyptian rebellion.
Lord has future plans for Jerusalem,
(17) My cities:The
cities of Israel,
not just Jerusalem will prosper in the future, they are called
“My cities” because the Lord has chosen the descendents of Jacob
and the city of Jerusalem.
Zechariah’s day the situation in Jerusalem seemed hopeless from
the physical perspective. The city was still in ruins, Jerusalem was surrounded by enemies, the population of Jews compared
to those who surrounded them was small, many of the Jews living
Babylon had no reason to return.
Here the Lord confirms he has plans for the city, which will one
day be the throne of King Messiah, who will rule the earth from
the city of a restored Jerusalem. (Zechariah 9:10)
again: This scene of Jerusalem
future had an immediate fulfillment and yet distant fulfillment.
In the Millennium, Jerusalem would be exalted above all the
nations of the earth, as the capital of the earth. (Zechariah
of the Horns
Then I raised my eyes and looked, and there were four horns. 19
And I said to the angel who talked with me, "What are these?" So
he answered me, "These are the horns that have scattered Judah,
Israel, and Jerusalem." 20 Then the Lord showed me four
craftsmen. 21 And I said, "What are these coming to do?" So he
said, "These are the horns that scattered Judah, so that no one
could lift up his head; but the craftsmen are coming to terrify
them, to cast out the horns of the nations that lifted up their
horn against the land of Judah to scatter it."
My eyes: Following the
vision of the Angel of the Lord, Zechariah again reports
what he sees. The previous vision relates to this one, both
refer to the status of Jerusalem and
Zechariah is having a vision and not a dream, which means he
seeing and not dreaming what he is reporting.
Four horns: Zechariah sees four horns, he does not describe animals
attached to the horns, but all likelihood they are animal horns,
the word rq Qeren in Hebrew, means horn, as in animal horn. The horns of
rams and goats have several uses in scripture. For example, they
are used as trumpets by the priests (Joshua 6:6), to call the
people to attention. Horns are used as containers to hold the
anointing oil,(I Samuel 16:13), to
anoint priests and kings.
Horns are also used to picture political powers and kings, as
pictured in scripture. For example in Daniel 8, the kingdoms ofGreece
and Persia. The one-horned goat (Greece) versus the two-horned
ram (Persia Media Kingdom).
20 "The ram
which you saw, having the two horns-they are the kings of Media
and Persia. 21 "And the male goat is the kingdom of Greece. The
large horn that is between its eyes is the first king. Daniel
In Daniel 7,
the final gentile kingdom, pictured as a beast, has ten horns,
these horns are latter interpreted as 10 kings who give
authority to the final kingdom.
The ten horns are ten kings Who shall arise from this kingdom.
And another shall rise after them; He shall be different from
the first ones, And shall subdue three kings. Daniel 7;24
is the meaning of “horns” in verse 18, they describe the
kingdoms, which scattered Israel, Judah and
Jerusalem. The number represents either the four specific
kingdoms or totality of Gentile power.
(19) The angel:The
interpreting angel who is by Zechariah’s side, helps him
understand the meaning of what he is seeing.
What are these:
Zechariah is actively engaged in his vision, and talks to the
angels, like he would to his fellow man. Zechariah does not
understand the meaning of the horns, so he asked the angel who
explained the earlier vision. ( vs. 9)
horns represent the powers in conflict with Israel,
Judah and Jerusalem. The nations mentioned here probably
parallel the four nations represented in Daniel Chapter 2.
Nebuchadnezzar has a dream, which only Daniel can interpret. In
this dream, a statue of a man is standing, the image is made of
4 different metals, Gold, Silver, Bronze, and Iron with feet
combined in Iron and clay. A stone uncut with human hands from a
mountain destroys this image at its feet.
Later Daniel explains to the king, the different metals
represent different kingdoms, starting with the gold, which
represents Babylon. These human kingdoms are finally finished,
when the stone destroys human government and establishes the
kingdom of God. The stone represents the Messiah. Persia, Greece
and Rome, followed Babylonian in their respective order, each
kingdom came into conflict with Judah
Zechariah’s day both Greece and Rome were future kingdoms.
Greece under Antiochus Epiphanies (165 B.C.) tried to destroy
the Jewish people, but failed. Later Rome A.D. 70 would destroy
Jerusalem and the Temple, and scatter the people. Over 1.5
million Jews would die under the Roman sword, from A.D. 70 to
135, the Temple would be destroyed and nation ceases to exist
for almost 2000-years.
(20) The Lord
showed: The Lord here is the LORD God, who is showing Zechariah the
meaning of his vision.
craftsmen: The Hebrew word here is , Xrx
which can be translated carpenter, engraver or smith or metal
(21) Craftsmen are coming: Who are the
craftsmen? Is another question, raised, are they angels? Are
they powers to counter the horns? Regardless of their nature,
the application here demonstrates, the Lord’s watching the
events surrounding his people, and intervenes in their behalf,
when the situation seems impossible.
Some view these “craftsmen” as the nations, which pull down the
kingdom, which oppose God’s people. Cyrus the Great (Isaiah
44:28), the Persian, terrified the Babylonians, who took refuge
inside the city of Babylon
from his armies (Daniel 5). The job of the craftsmen was to
counter the horns lifted up against Israel, Judah and Jerusalem.
Also, the craftsmen are seen in a future tense,
as still coming, weighing in favor of yet future fulfillment inIsrael’s
future, as the nations come against Judah
and Jerusalem in the end of days.
Terrify them: The presence of the carpenters is to terrify and punish the
nations, which come against Jerusalem
and scatter the inhabitants of Jerusalem.
Horns of the
nations: The completion of Gentile power might also be in view here,
the four craftsmen, could also represent angelic judgment to
befall the and terrify the world in the final days of Gentile
rule, ending with the 2nd coming and the
establishment of the kingdom of God.
Daniel 10, we see the spiritual dimension, of the nations in
conflict, as a “Demonic force” resists Daniel’s prayer called
the “Prince of Persia” who resists Daniel for 21 days.
13 "But the
prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me twenty-one days;
and behold, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me,
for I had been left alone there with the kings of Persia.
14 "Now I have
come to make you understand what will happen to your people in
the latter days, for the vision refers to many days yet to
come." Daniel 10:13-14
Lifted up their
horn: The imagery here pictures the Gentiles (Non-Jewish)
nations, as horned animals, which assault Judah and
Jerusalem. Ultimately, this is completed prior to the return of
Christ as the nations gather against Jerusalem.
It is at this point, the pierced Messiah returns to Jerusalem
3 "And it shall
happen in that day that I will make Jerusalem a very heavy stone
for all peoples; all who would heave it away will surely be cut
in pieces, though all nations of the earth are gathered against
it. "It shall be in that day that I will seek to destroy all the
nations that come against Jerusalem. Zechariah 12:3
Who is the Angel of the Lord?
book of Zechariah referenced the person known as
the Angel of the Lord six times (See
Zechariah 1:11,12, 3:1,5-6, 12:8) In addition
the Angel of the Lord is mentioned specifically
52 times in the Hebrew Bible. Who is the Angel
of the Lord? Is he just a very powerful angel?
Angel of the Lord promises to multiply the
descendents of Hagar
Then the Angel of the Lord said to her, "I will
multiply your descendants exceedingly, so that
they shall not be counted for multitude."
Angel of the Lord also calls himself God, when
Abraham takes Isaac to the top of Mt. Moriah,
and the Angel of the Lord stops the sacrifice.
11 But the Angel of the Lord called to him from
heaven and said, "Abraham, Abraham!" So he said,
"Here I am." 12 And He said, "Do not lay your
hand on the lad, or do anything to him; for now
I know that you fear God, since you have not
withheld your son, your only son, from Me."
The angel of the Lord also appears to Moses,
where Moses is instructed to remove his shoes
because he was in the presence of holiness.
2 And the Angel of the Lord appeared to him in a
flame of fire from the midst of a bush. So he
looked, and behold, the bush was burning with
fire, but the bush was not consumed. 3 Then
Moses said, "I will now turn aside and see this
great sight, why the bush does not burn." 4 So
when the Lord saw that he turned aside to look,
God called to him from the midst of the bush and
said, "Moses, Moses!" And he said, "Here I am."
5 Then He said, "Do not draw near this place.
Take your sandals off your feet, for the place
where you stand is holy ground." Exodus 3:2-5
angel of the Lord led children of Israel
in the wilderness, which clearly identifies the
Angel of the Lord as the Divine Shekenha
presence in Angelic form.
the Angel of the Lord came up from Gilgal
to Bochim, and said: "I led you up from Egypt
and brought you to the land of which I swore to
your fathers; and I said, 'I will never break
My covenant with you.
The Messenger (Angel) of the Covenant
Angel of the Lord is in fact the pre-incarnate 2nd
person of the Trinity, Jesus Christ. He is the
Messenger or Angel of the Covenant who
was prophesied by Malachi to come to his Temple,
the 2nd Temple, which was destroyed
1 "Behold, I send My messenger, And he will prepare the
way before Me. And the Lord, whom you
seek, Will suddenly come to His temple, Even
the Messenger of the covenant, In whom
you delight. Behold, He is coming," Says the
Lord of hosts. 2 "But who can endure the day
of His coming? And who can stand when He
appears? For He is like a refiner's fire And
like launderer's soap. Malachi 3:1-2
Angel of the Lord intercedes on the behalf ofJerusalem,
and rebukes Satan who stands as the accuser, the
same role Jesus plays, who is our intercessor
before the Father, the Lord of Hosts.