The Messiah
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1. Introduction to Judaism

2. History of Judaism

3. The Books of Judaism

4. The Messiah according to Judaism

5. The Messiah according to the Bible

6. Types of the Messiah

Answering Objections

7. Isaiah 9:6-7, Isaiah 7:14

8. Isaiah 53 Part 1

9. Isaiah 53 Part 2

10 Daniel 9:24-27 Part 1
11. Daniel 9:24-27 Part 2

12. Psalm 2, 22

13. Haggai, Zechariah 12:10



6. Types of the Messiah in the Tanakh


The Christian understanding of the Messiah (Christ) of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) is based on what prophets proclaimed about Messiah.   The objections often raised by Jews, regarding the Christian understanding of the Hebrew Scriptures is the charge of incorrect interpretation and reading. 

      Does Jesus Christ fulfill the prophecies of the Jewish Prophets?  When reading the New Testament Gospels, particularly Matthew, one cannot help, but read about Jesus, and the gospel writer’s claim of fulfillment, of prophecies written, hundreds of years before his birth. Were these prophets writing about Jesus? 

The prophets of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) wrote as God revealed the words to them about the person of Messiah.  They reveled qualifiers, such as “Son of David” (2nd Samuel 7:13) “Bethlehem…Out of you” (Micah 5:2) and “Jerusalem: Behold, your King….riding on a donkey” (Zechariah 9:9).  These qualifiers allowed Israel to distinguish the “True Messiah” from false messiahs.  Anybody could claim to be messiah, but without meeting the qualifiers, they became disqualified from their claim.

Just with a few qualifiers, most of the earth’s population could be eliminated from the pool of humanity, as a potential Messiah. 


Elimination of false-messiah’s

“Son of Man”

50% of the population eliminated

From Bethlehem


99.99% of the earth population

“Son of David”

99.9999% of the earth population

Before the 2nd Temple destruction.

99.99999999% of the earth’s population eliminated.





Messianic Prophecy


 Through the revelation of scripture, God painted a picture of Messiah for the nation.  Sometimes these pictures clearly state Messiah[1] in the text, other times, there are clues within the context of the scripture, allowing us to know Messiah is referent.  For example, “Son of David” is clearly a Messianic reference based on the revelation the Messiah would be a “Son of David”.  In the same way, when Zechariah 9:9 refers to, “Jerusalem…your King” and then in the following verse, Zechariah 9:10 says, “His dominion shall be 'from sea to sea, And from the River to the ends of the earth.”, we can know the reference to the king in verse 9 is the Messiah.  Because, we know from scripture, the Messiah will be king of the earth, ruling over the nations. Thus, we can logically conclude, this verse is messianic.

Through prophecy and scripture, God prepared the world for the coming of the Messiah, who would pay for the sins of the world through his death, and then reign over the world.  Through scripture, God paints pictures and concepts of Messiah.  These concepts and pictures (types) allow us to see God’s pattern of redemption, before redemption occurs.  For example, the need of redemption by a kinsman-redeemer is answered in the book of Job and Ruth.  Other types such as the Passover, The Akida (The binding of Isaac), the Brazen Serpent, the Scapegoat and the life of Joseph illustrate pictures of the coming redemption, through Messiah.

  Messianic Concepts (Redemption)

      God paints messianic concepts illustrated by events, completed by Messiah.  For example, Job looks forward to the coming of his “Redeemer” (lag Ga'al), meaning kinsman-redeemer, someone near of kin to Job, who would pay his debt. He (the Redeemer) will allow him to see God, even after worms destroy his eyes and flesh.  The concept of redemption is here associated with Messiah. This concept of Redemption, answers the Jewish objection to the nature of Messiah.

 1. Objection:  Where in scripture does it show the Redeemer/Messiah, needs to be God?

 Answer: Throughout scripture, the Lord is called Redeemer[2] (lag Ga'al), meaning kinsman-redeemer.  In order to be our kinsman, God must also be “Son of Man”, hence the need for the incarnation as illustrated in scripture. Being “Son of God” (Psalm 2:2,7,12) and “Son of Man” (Daniel 7:13) allows Messiah to redeem humanity from their bankrupt state.

 Through Job, we see the longing for redemption and its association with resurrection.  In the book of Ruth, Ruth, a woman from Moab, marries an Israelite whose family came from Bethlehem. After the death of her husband, Ruth the Moabite women returns with her mother-in-law Naomi back to Bethlehem. In Bethlehem, Ruth and Naomi are destitute because both Naomi’s husband, Elimelech and her son, who married Ruth, died in Moab.   This introduces Boaz, a near-kinsman of Elmelech, and as a kinsman he has the right of redemption, being the “Redeemer” (lag Ga'al) of Elimelech’s estate, Naomi dead husband. Boaz redeems Elimelech, he also marries Ruth as part of the redemption law. Ruth, the Moabite women, gives birth to Obed, the father of Jesse, the father of David. In the line of David, the Moabite women, Ruth is redeemed and becomes part of the blood line of Messiah.

Job declares the role of redemption Messiah will play, and the book of Ruth illustrates and applies this messianic concept of redemption. Bankrupt Naomi and her daughter-in-law, Ruth are redeemed by their near-kinsman-redeemer, Boaz. Ruth then becomes the progenitor David’s family line, and thus in the line of Messiah, since Messiah would be a “Son of David” and David was Ruth’s great grandson.

The Messiah, is our (Ga’al) kinsman-redeemer, but to be a kinsman he must be a “Son of Man”, and thus have the right of redemption.   Therefore, when scripture refers to the LORD as our Redeemer it is referring to the role the Messiah would play being both “Son of God” and “Son of Man”.

"Thus says the Lord, the King of Israel, And his Redeemer, the Lord of hosts: 'I am the First and I am the Last; Besides Me there is no God. Isaiah 44:24

 For your Maker is your husband, The Lord of hosts is His name; And your Redeemer is the Holy One of Israel; He is called the God of the whole earth.  Isaiah 54:5

 Messianic Types[3]

 Scripture also illustrates the Messiah by using types or pictures.  For example, Isaac carried the wood to the top of Moriah, for his sacrifice. His obedience to his father Abraham, and the ram caught in the thicket, serves as an illustration of “Suffering Messiah” of scripture. These types peppered throughout scripture, set the pattern latter fulfilled by Messiah.  Within these types, scripture answers Jewish objections to the atoning work of the “Suffering Messiah”

  Ø  Passover Lamb 

Objection: The blood of another man cannot pay for sins of another person. 

Answer:  Scripture illustrates blood covering in the  story of Passover, the blood of the spotless lamb was placed over the door, as a covering to those in the house as death of the firstborn “Passed Over”.  In the same way, the blood of Messiah covers our sin, so the penalty of death passes over. This is illustrated in Isaiah 53 as the Messiah’s death pays for our sins.

 The Passover Lamb (Exodus 12), is a picture demonstrating the need for sacrifice.  The need for a spotless lamb, pictures a “Sinless” Messiah.  The blood of the lamb illustrates the effect of Messiah’s death. How his blood covers our sins. 

If the blood of a lamb, could cover the sins of Hebrews from the judgment of God against Egypt, why can’t the blood of sinless Messiah do the same? Jesus Christ illustrates the fulfillment of Passover in his life and death.  He is our Passover Lamb. 


Passover Lamb (Exodus 12)

Yeshua (Jesus)


Spotless Lamb (Exodus 12:5)

Righteous Servant (Isaiah 53:11)


Male Lamb or Goat

Man of sorrows (Isaiah 53:5)


The blood of the lamb covered the occupants of the house from judgment.  (Exodus 12:22-23)

Messiah bore “iniquity of us all” (Isaiah 53:6)

Time of Death

Lamb’s slaughtered at twilight, Friday (Exodus 12:6)

Yeshua hung on the cross from the 6th Hour to 9th hour Friday (Matthew 27:45-46)


The 14th of Nissan, Passover

Yeshua died on Friday, the day of preparation (Matthew 27:62)



Ø  The Brazen Serpent

 Objection: Faith alone could not be enough to take away sins.

 Answer:   Israelites who were bitten by poisonous snakes could be healed by looking at the brass snake made by Moses, this required both obedience and faith.  Israel needed to be obedient and look at the brass snake, in same way, a person must trust the Lord for their salvation, in the Messiah who hung on a cross for their sins. 

        Another example, is the Brazen Serpent (Numbers 21:4-9, John 3;14) which pictures the crucifixion. The Lord punished Israel for rebellion against Moses and God, by sending fiery serpents, to sting the people; as a result, they died from the poison.  After the people pleaded to Moses, God instructed Moses to make a Brass Serpent and put it on a stick.  Who ever was stung, could look to the brazen serpent and receive healing.  Jesus referring to this event, said

14 "And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up, 15 "that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have eternal life.  John 3:14-15 

            The Brazen Serpent was a picture of the Messiah who was lifted up on a stick, “The Cross”, would heal those bitten by the poison of sin.  Israel rebelled against God, and only by being obedient and believing God, could they find healing.   They needed to turn to the Brass Serpent if they wished healing.  In the same way, man must turn to Messiah (Christ) who was lifted up on the stick (the Cross) if they want healing from the poison of sin.

Ø                        The Scapegoat 


 “How can the death of one man pay for the sins of others, each person is responsible for their own sins?”  

Answer:  If the sins can be atoned for by the death of a goat whose blood is sprinkled on the mercy seat, and the sins of the nation can be released into the wilderness by confessing them on a goat released into the wilderness, why can’t the sins of the world be paid for by a righteous Messiah? 

An objection presented regarding the Christian concept of atonement by the death of Messiah, is the idea of the “Messiah dying” for the sins of others.    Here the concept of atonement is presented in the picture of the two goats on Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) in Leviticus 16. 

8 "Then Aaron shall cast lots for the two goats: one lot for the Lord and the other lot for the scapegoat.  9 "And Aaron shall bring the goat on which the Lord's lot fell, and offer it as a sin offering. 10 "But the goat on which the lot fell to be the scapegoat shall be presented alive before the Lord, to make atonement upon it, and to let it go as the scapegoat into the wilderness. Leviticus 16:8-9

 One goat would die for the sins of the children of Israel, his blood (the goat) was to be sprinkled on the Mercy Seat behind the veil, in the Holy of Holies.  The other goat was let into the wilderness after the sins of Israel were confessed on goat, as the high priest, placed his hands on the head of the goat.  The goat was then let loose into the wilderness to bear the sins of Israel. 

21 "Aaron shall lay both his hands on the head of the live goat, confess over it all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions, concerning all their sins, putting them on the head of the goat, and shall send it away into the wilderness by the hand of a suitable man. 22 "The goat shall bear on itself all their iniquities to an uninhabited land; and he shall release the goat in the wilderness. Leviticus 16:21-22 

Here in scripture God illustrates the idea of substitution for the atonement of sin. The picture of the two goats in Leviticus 16 begs the questions.

How could a goat pay for the sins of entire nation?

How could a goat, let loose into the wilderness carry the sins of the nation? 

If a goat can bear the sins of a nation, why can’t a sinless righteous man?  In Isaiah, we are presented with just such a proposition.   

4 Surely He has borne our griefs And carried our sorrows; Yet we esteemed Him stricken, Smitten by God, and afflicted.  5 But He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities; The chastisement for our peace was upon Him, And by His stripes we are healed. 6 All we like sheep have gone astray; We have turned, every one, to his own way; And the Lord has laid on Him the iniquity of us all.  Isaiah 53:4-6 

Here we see the importance of Messianic concepts presented in the Torah (5 books of Moses), only to receive a greater fulfillment later in scripture.  The concept, answers the charge of atonement of sins, through the death the righteous Messiah, verses the death of a goat. The Messiah carries our grief and sorrow into the wilderness, the Messiah is wounded for our sins, like the two goats before the High Priest, the Messiah is our sacrafice. 

Ø  The Akida (The Binding) 

Objection: The idea of the “Only begotten Son of God” dying for the sins of mankind is not a biblical concept.

Answer: Two thousand years before Yeshua, God instructed Abraham to take his “Only” son Isaac to the top of Mt. Moriah and offer him as a sacrifice. Through Abraham, God illustrated the picture of Messiah, who being a “Son of Man” and “Son of God” was our sacrifice for sin, on the same location, 2000 after Isaac provided the first picture. 

The word, dq[ `aqad in Hebrew means to bind or tie.  This is in reference to the Isaac willing to offer himself as a sacrifice, in obedience to his father Abraham.  This event is referred to daily in Jewish prayers services, and is a focal point of rabbinic thought.  The event of Isaac’s binding is pictorial of the coming of Messiah, who would fulfill what Isaac pictured. 


Isaac/Abraham (Genesis 22)



Abraham is instructed to take his “Only son” Isaac to Mt. Moriah. (Genesis 22;2)

Jesus is called the “Only begotten Son” (John 3:16)


In a test of faith, Abraham is instructed to offer his only son as a sacrifice. (Genesis 22:2)

Jesus was offered by God as a sacrifice for sin. (John 3;14,17)


Abraham was told to take his son, Isaac to the Mountains of Moriah.  Mt. Moriah is the location of the Temple, first built by Solomon.

Mt. Moriah/Jerusalem

In the vicinity of Mt. Moriah, outside the Temple walls, Jesus was crucified. (Matthew 27:21-22)

Carrying the Wood

Isaac carried the wood up the mountain, to his sacrifice (Genesis 22;6)

Jesus carried cross beam for the Cross, to the place of his sacrifice. (John 19:17-18)


By all accounts Isaac was a grown man about at this point of his life. He was obedient to his father, who was told to offer him as a sacrifice.

(Genesis 22;9)

Jesus was obedient, obeying the father and offering Himself as a sacrifice. (Matthew 26;39)


By all accounts Isaac was about 37 years of age at this point.[4]

Jesus began his ministry when he was about 30, so Jesus would have been between 33 to 37 years of age.  (Luke 3;23)

God provides the Sacrifice.

Abraham passed the test, God prevented the sacrifice from taking place.  God then provided a ram caught in the thicket. (Genesis 22:9)

Jesus was the sacrifice God provided for the sins of man, caught on the cross.

 The Life of Joseph as an illustration of Messiah 

Objection: If Jesus was Messiah, the Jewish people would have never rejected him! 

Answer:  The life of the “Suffering Messiah” is pictured in the life of Joseph, who was rejected by his brothers and sold into slavery. In the same way, scripture pictures the rejection of Messiah, rejected by Israel sold for 30 pieces of silver.


Through the life of Joseph the Lord illustrates the picture of Messiah.  The Messiah was to be a descendent of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. (Genesis 49:10, Numbers 24:17)  In Judaism, they look for the coming of two Messiahs, Son of David and Son of JosephMessiah ben (son) Joseph suffers and dies only to be resurrected by the Messiah ben (son) of David.  

            Judaism, through tradition has missed the two-fold picture of Messiah pictured in the life of Joseph.  When the sons of Jacob first saw Joseph they did not recognize him as Joseph, its only when Joseph revealed himself to his brothers did they see the “First” Joseph and the “Second” Joseph were the same Joseph.  In the same way, the descendents of Jacob did not recognize Messiah when he appeared the “First” time, but he will reveal Himself to the sons of Jacob the “Second” time.  

            The life of Joseph is another pictorial or type of the life of Messiah, ultimately to be fulfilled in the person of Yeshua Ha Messiah (Jesus the Messiah) 


Joseph (Genesis 37-50)


Bad Report

Joseph gave a bad report of his brothers to his father. (Genesis 37:2)

Jesus condemned the practices of the Chief priests, Sadducees, Pharisees and scribes. (Matthew 23)


Joseph was hated and envied by his brothers. (Genesis 37:4)

Jesus was hated and envied by the Chief Priests, Pharisees and scribes.  (Matthew 27:18)

Pictured as ruling over his brothers.

Joseph told his brothers and family of his dream picturing him ruling over them. (Genesis 37:5-11)

Jesus informed the High Priest he would see the “Son of Man” coming in glory and power. (Matthew 26;64-66)

Rejected his dominion

Joseph brothers rejected Joseph ruling over them. (Genesis 37:8)

The Chief Priest rejected Jesus ruling over them. (Matthew 26:66-68)

Plot of death

Joseph is sent to his brothers, who see him in the distance and plot his death. (Genesis 37:19)

The Chief Priest, and rulers plot the death of Jesus. (Matthew 26:14)


Joseph upon coming to his brothers is stripped, mocked and put in a pit. (Genesis 37:23-24)

Jesus after being rejected by the High Priest, is stripped, beaten and mocked (Matthew 27:28-30)

Sold by Judah

Judah betrays his brother, by selling him to the Ishmaelites for 20 pieces of Silver. (Genesis 37:27-28)

Judah, the remaining tribe after the Babylonian and Assyrian captivities turns Jesus over to the Romans.

Sold for silver

Judah sells Joseph for 20 pieces of silver. (Genesis 37:28)

Judas sells Jesus for 30 pieces of silver. (Matthew 26;15)

Betrayer’s name

Judah the fourth on of Jacob betrayed and sold Joseph

Judas is the same name as Judah.

Rejected by a brother

Judah was Joseph’s brother, one of the 12 brothers.

Judas was one of the 12 disciples who spent three years with Jesus, like a brother.

Brothers used Goat’s blood in his place

In place of Joseph, the sons of Jacob dipped his coat in the blood of a goat, representing the blood as Joseph’s (Genesis 37:31)

The tribes of Jacob, were instructed to sacrifice the blood of animals for their sins.  This was until Messiah came, who was pictured in sacrifice.

Suffered from false accusations and slander

Joseph as a slave, in Egypt was falsely accused and slandered by the Egyptians. (Genesis 39:17-19)

Jesus was falsely accused by the High-Priest and others.  (Matthew 26:59-61)

Exalted to become savior of Egypt

Joseph was elevated by Pharaoh to be the savior of Egypt. (Genesis 41)

Jesus rejected by the Jews, was accepted by the Gentiles as savior.

Honored but unknown to his brothers.

As Joseph was honored by the Egyptians/Gentiles he was unknown to his brothers, being considered as dead.

(Genesis 42:7-8)

Jesus is honored by the Gentiles, but virtually unknown to the Jews his brothers, being considered dead.


Joseph’s brothers did not recognize Joseph the first time they saw him, being about age 30(Genesis 42:7-8)

Jesus was not recognized by the Jews at his first coming, being about age 30.


Joseph revealed himself to his brothers the when they were alone. (Genesis 45:7)

Jesus at his second coming will be revealed to Israel. (Matthew 23:38-39 ; 26:64




[1] Psalm 2 refers to the Messiah, in verse 2, Daniel 9:25 and 26 refers to Messiah the Prince (dyig'n ;xyiv'm-d) who is “Cut” or killed.

[2]  See Psalm 19:14, 78:35, Isaiah 41:14, 43:14, 44:6, 44:24, 47:4, 49:7, 49:26, 54:5, 54:8, 59:20, 60:16, 63:16, Jeremiah 50:34. Here the word lag Ga'al is applied to God who is called our kinsman-redeemer.

[3] Type means a "model" or "pattern" or "mould" into which clay or wax was pressed, that it might take the figure or exact shape of the mould. The word "type" is generally used to denote a resemblance between something present and something future, which is called the "antitype."

[4] Sarah was 90 years old when she gave birth to Isaac, and she died when she was 127-years old, Isaac would have been 37-years old at her death.  Isaac married Rebecca after the death of his mother.