Introduction to Chapter 11 Part 1
Chapter Eleven continues where chapter 10 left off, the angel is still
speaking with Daniel by the
Daniel is now ready to receive this message.
Chapter 11 has two parts, the first part is Daniel 11:1-35 covers the
time from Darius the Mede (chapter 6) until Antiochus IV
Epiphanes (175-164 B.C.). The second part, Daniel 11:36 to 12:2
covers the last Gentile ruler, who is in power at the return of
The period of time between the Antiochus IV and the rise of the last
ruler is glossed over in Daniel 11:33-35. Daniel
11:36 emerges with the last Gentile King to the coming of the
Messiah, who is the stone which crushes the feet of the
composite man in Daniel 2.
Daniel chapter 11 gives a detailed history of the transitions of kingdoms
from time of Darius until the time of Antiochus IV. This
detailed history has caused skeptics of the Bible to dismiss the
accuracy as written after the fact. Porphyry a third century
pagan attacked the book of Daniel as a Maccabean forgery. Jerome
responded with his own commentary on the book of Daniel,
defending its 5th century B.C. authorship. The
detailed history forces the reader to come to one of two
conclusions, either the book of Daniel was supernaturally
inspired by God, who revealed to Daniel the history of nations
before the event, or Daniel was written by a lying imposter who
claimed to be a 5th century B.C. prophet.
Along these two lines has war waged around the book of Daniel, as
skeptics of the Bible and the supernatural refuse to accept the
possibility of events being revealed before their occurrence.
Four Important Kings of
DA 11:1 "Also
in the first year of Darius the Mede, I, even I, stood up to
confirm and strengthen him.)
DA 11:2 "And
now I will tell you the truth: Behold, three more kings will
arise in Persia, and the fourth shall be far richer than them
all; by his strength, through his riches, he shall stir up all
against the realm of Greece.
The first year:
angel continues his message to Daniel, the spiritual dimension
to the sixth chapter is revealed. The angel informs Daniel,
that he strengthened Darius the Mede in the first year. Daniel
is now in the third year of Cyrus, 536 B.C., Daniel 6 took place
in 539 B.C. The other presidents and satraps tried to have
Daniel killed by challenging his loyalty to the king through law
established to destroy Daniel. In Daniel 6, an angel appears
which shuts the lions mouths.
22 "My God sent
His angel and shut the lions' mouths, so that they have not hurt
me, because I was found innocent before Him; and also, O king, I
have done no wrong before you."
specualation, it seems likely the angel who shut the mouths of
the lions is this very angel talking to Daniel. He along with
Michael stand watch over the children of Israel. The enemies of
God tried to destroy Daniel by turning Darius the Mede against
faithful life gave God the opportunity to demonstrate Himself to
the whole Persian kingdom and Darius the Mede rule was
Daniel is now
in the third year of Cyrus, 536 B.C., the angel tells Daniel
three more kings are to rise in the Persian Kingdom. Since
Daniel is already in the reign of Cyrus, the following three
kings are; Cambyses 529-522 B.C., Pseudo-Smerdis 522-521 B.C.,
Darius I Hystaspes (521-486 B.C. Ezra 5,6)
The greatest of
the Persian kings was Xerxes I (486-465 B.C. Ezra 4:6). Xerxes
is the King identified in the book of Ester. Xerxes led a major
expedition against Greece which had disastoreus results.
According to Daniel, Xerxes was the climax of Persian rulers,
from him it was a downward spiral from which Persia never
recovered. Xerxes spent four years preparing for his attack on
gathering hundreds of thousands of soldiers and vast riches.
Encyclopedia Britannica delineates the chronology of events,
turned his attention westward to
He wintered in Sardis in 481–480 BC and thence led a combined
land and sea invasion of Greece. Northern Greece fell to the
invaders in the summer of 480, the Greek stand at
Thermopylae in August of 480 came to nought, and the Persian land forces
taking and burning the Acropolis. But the Persian fleet lost the
Battle of Salamis, and the impetus of the invasion was blunted.
Xerxes, who had by then been away from Asia rather long for a
king with such widespread responsibilities, returned home and
left Mardonius in charge of further operations. The real end of
the invasion came with the Battle of Plataea, the fall of Thebes
(a stronghold of pro-Persian forces), and the Persian naval loss
at Mycale in 479 BC. Of the three, the Persian loss at
Plataea was perhaps the most decisive. Up until Mardonius was
killed, the issue of thebattle was probably still in doubt, but,
once leaderless, the less organized and less disciplined Persian
forces collapsed. Time and again in later years this was to be
the pattern in such encounters, for the Persians never solved
the military problem posed by the disciplined Greek
hoplites…….Harem intrigues, which were steadily to sap the
strength and vitality of the Achaemenid Empire, led to the
assassination of the Great King in 465 BC.
The attack on
Greece would stir in the hearts of Greek descendents seeking
revenge for generations. The attack on
and the burning of the Acropolis would be met by the greatest
descendent Greece would ever know, Alexander the Great.
The Rise and
Fall of Alexander the Great
DA 11:3 "Then a
mighty king shall arise, who shall rule with great dominion, and
do according to his will.
DA 11:4 "And
when he has arisen, his kingdom shall be broken up and divided
toward the four winds of heaven, but not among his posterity nor
according to his dominion with which he ruled; for his kingdom
shall be uprooted, even for others besides these.
attacks on Greece from Persia caused a sense of outrage that
simmered in the hearts of Greeks. Alexander the Great’s father,
Philip of Macedon, before his death had laid plans to attack
Persia before his death. Alexander from his childhood was raised
to hate the Persians for their attacks on Greece over the years.
Alexander was able to destroy the
Persian Empire and establish the Greek Empire which was even larger
Only after his men refused to go any further did Alexander
return to Babylon to solidify his conquests. He planned to
solidify his Empire, he encouraged his Macedonian soldiers to
marry Persian women. Babylon was to be the capital of his
Before Alexander could follow through on his plans he died in
at nearly the age of 33. After his death his generals fought
over his kingdom. Four generals surfaced to take control of the
The four winds signify all directions. His kingdom was
Alexander the Great died, his kingdom was fought over by his
Generals for a period of 20 years. Four generals emerged as
head of his kingdom,
assumed rule over
took control of
Bithynia and most of Asia Minor;
3. Selecus took
Syria and the lands to the east including Babylonia;
established rule over
and possibly Palestine and Arabia Petraea.
two known offspring. Herecules, the son of Alexander from
and Alexander from Roxane. Roxane after Alexander’s death had
Barsina and Hercules killed by Polysperchon. Alexander, the son
of Alexander the Great, was born after his death from Roxana.
Roxana and her son were later murdered by Cassander, one of
Alexander succeceeding generals.
Alexander's death (323) she had his second wife, Stateira
(Barsine), killed, and she gave birth at Babylon to a son
(Alexander IV), who was accepted by the Macedonian generals as
joint king with the idiot Philip
III Arrhidaeus (half brother of Alexander the Great). In 319
Roxana joined Alexander's mother, Olympias, in
Epirus, but she
was captured in 316 in Macedonia by Cassander, who later took
the title of king of
He imprisoned Roxana at Amphipolis and then executed her and her
His kingdom was
not left to his posterity but divided between his generals.
Ptolemy I Soter
and Seleucus I Nicator
DA 11:5 "Also
the king of the South shall become strong, as well as one of his
princes; and he shall gain power over him and have dominion. His
dominion shall be a great dominion.
King of the
Following the death of Alexander, there was a period of time,
about 20 years, when the Diadochoi (Successors) fought for
control of the empire. The four successors, Cassander,
Lysimacus, Selecus and Ptolemy divided the kingdom. The king of
Ptolemy I Soter (Savior) (323-285). Ptolemy aided Selecus in
regaining his kingdom from another general who tried to
reestablish Alexander’s Empire under his own authority,
One of his princes:
Nicator (312-281 B.C.) was ousted by Antigonus and fled to
Ptolemy, there as one of Ptolemy’s generals, they were able to
defeat Antigonus. Selecus regained his kingdom, Selecus
according to Daniel would become King of the North.
The final battle took place at Ipsus in
in 301 BC between two camps of the “successors” (diodochoi) of
Alexander the Great, part of a struggle that accelerated the
dismemberment of Alexander's empire begun after his death………..In
302 a coalition representing Lysimachus, king of Thrace,
Seleucus I Nicator of Babylon, Ptolemy I Soter of Egypt, and
Cassander of Macedonia moved against Antigonus I Monophthalmus,
king in Asia Minor, and his son Demetrius I Poliorcetes.
Although the combined strength of Seleucus and Lysimachus in
troops was only slightly inferiorto the 70,000 foot soldiers and
10,000 horses of Antigonus, it was the allies' superiority in
elephants that proved invaluable for victory. The elephants
prevented Demetrius, who had pursued too far after defeating the
opposing cavalry, from returning to rescue his father. Antigonus
was killed, Demetrius fled, and Asia Minor was added to the
dominions of Lysimachus.
Gain power over him:
able to secure the greater kingdom at the expense of Ptolemy who
initially aided him.
and the King of Syria
DA 11:6 "And at
the end of some years they shall join forces, for the daughter
of the king of the South shall go to the king of the North to
make an agreement; but she shall not retain the power of her
authority, and neither he nor his authority shall stand; but she
shall be given up, with those who brought her, and with him who
begot her, and with him who strengthened her in those times.
The wars between the King of the North,
Syria and the
King of the South, Egypt continued off and on over territory,
they became known as the “Syrian Wars”. During the Second
Syrian War (260-253 B.C.) Antiochus II Theos (261-246 B.C.) sued
for peace by agreeing to marry Ptolemy II Philadelphius (285-246
B.C.) daughter Bernice. The problem was Antiochus II was already
married to Laodiceia. He therefore divorced Laodicea and
Daughter of the king of the South:
Bernice was the daughter of the king of the South. The
marriage took place in 252 B.C. she conceived and had a son.
The son was to take possession of both the northern and southern
kingdoms. When Ptolemy II died, Antiochus II restored his wife
Laodiceia who had then had Bernice, her infant son and Antiochus
II Theos killed.
Laodiceia had her son Seleucus Calliniucs (247-226 B.C.)
succeed her husband to the throne.
Euergetes and Seleucus Callinicus
DA 11:7 "But
from a branch of her roots one shall arise in his place, who
shall come with an army, enter the fortress of the king of the
North, and deal with them and prevail.
DA 11:8 "And he
shall also carry their gods captive to
with their princes and their precious articles of silver and
gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the
DA 11:9 "Also
the king of the North shall come to the kingdom of the king of
the South, but shall return to his own land.
Branch of her
The brother of
Bernice, who was killed by Laodiceia, Ptolemy III Euergetes
(246-221 B.C.) avenged his sister’s death. He attacked Seleucus
Calliniucs and his mother Laodiceia who ruled from Syria. He
Babylonia and went as far as the borders of
Jerome in his
commentary provides a detailed description of Ptolemy Euergetes
conquest of the King of the North.
He came up with
a great army and advanced into the province of the king of the
North, that is Seleucus Callinicus, who together with his
mother Laodice was ruling in Syria, and abused them, and not
only did he seize Syria, but also took Cilicia and the remoter
regions beyond the Euphrates and nearly all of Asia as well.
And then, when he heard that a rebellion was afoot in Egypt, he
ravaged the kingdom of Seleucus and carried off as booty forty
thousand talents of Silver, and also precious vessels and images
of the gods to the amount of two and half thousand. Among them
were the same images which Cambyses had brought to Persia at the
time when he conquered Egypt. The Egyptian people were indeed
devoted to idolatry, for when he had brought back their gods to
them after so many years, they called him Euergetes
(Benefactor). And he himself retained possessions of
but he handed over Cilicia to his friend, Antiochus, that he
might govern it, and the provinces beyond the Euphrates he
handed over to Xanthippus, another general.
King of the North: Several years after the Egyptian invasion Seleucus
Calliniucs was able to mount a return attack on
Egypt in about
240 B.C. Seleucus was defeated and returned to his own land and
died in 226 B.C.
III the Great vs. Ptolemy Philopater
"However his sons shall stir up strife, and assemble a multitude
of great forces; and one
shall certainly come and overwhelm and pass through; then he
shall return to his fortress and stir up strife.
DA 11:11 "And
the king of the South shall be moved with rage, and go out and
fight with him, with the king of the North, who shall muster a
great multitude; but the multitude shall be given into the hand
of his enemy.
DA 11:12 "When
he has taken away the multitude, his heart will be lifted up;
and he will cast down tens of thousands, but he will not
DA 11:13 "For
the king of the North will return and muster a multitude greater
than the former, and shall certainly come at the end of some
years with a great army and much equipment.
DA 11:14 "Now
in those times many shall rise up against the king of the South.
Also, violent men of your people shall exalt themselves in
fulfillment of the vision, but they shall fall.
DA 11:15 "So
the king of the North shall come and build a siege mound, and
take a fortified city; and the forces of the South shall not
withstand him. Even his choice troops shall have no strength to
DA 11:16 "But
he who comes against him shall do according to his own will, and
no one shall stand against him. He shall stand in the Glorious
Land with destruction in his power.
DA 11:17 "He
shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole
kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do. And he
shall give him the daughter of women to destroy it; but she
shall not stand with him, or be for him.
DA 11:18 "After
this he shall turn his face to the coastlands, and shall take
many. But a ruler shall bring the reproach against them to an
end; and with the reproach removed, he shall turn back on him.
DA 11:19 "Then
he shall turn his face toward the fortress of his own land; but
he shall stumble and fall, and not be found.
Callinicus failure to attack
and win, his sons were able to do what he could not. Seleucus
III (226-223 B.C.) his son died in battle in Asia Minor.
III the Great (223-187 B.C.) succeeded where his brother and father failed.
III began what
became known as the Fourth Syrian War.
“one” is Antiochus III who waged war against Egypt, the King of
The king of the
The King of the
South was Ptolemy IV Philopator (221-203 B.C.). Antiochus III
first took Lebanon in 219 B.C. and pushed south toward
Egypt. The Egyptian ruler assembled a large army in 217
B.C. and met Antiochus at Raphia, south of
Egyptian army, led by Ptolemy and his wife-sister, Arsinoe
resulted in a complete victory for Egypt. The armies both
numbered about 70,000.
Antiochus lost his entire army and fled into the desert. Egypt
reclaimed southern Syria for the time.
The king of the
turned his attention to the East part of his kingdom. His
campaigns against Bacteria and Parthia (Persia) gained him the
title “The Great” (212 -204 B.C.) In 203 B.C., Ptolemy IV and
Arsinoe had a mysterious death. Their son, Ptolemy V (203-181
B.C.) succeeded them, he was seven when he took power.
Antiochus saw his opportunity and assembled a greater army then his
failed attack in 217 B.C. against the child king. The Jews
rebelled against the Ptolemies, the “violent men of your
people”. The gates of
opened for the armies of Antiochus who attacked the Egyptian
garrison at Jerusalem.
Scopas the Egyptian General was decisively defeated in 198 B.C. by
Antiochus. The prospect of Roman intervention forced Antiochus
make a treaty with Egypt. By marrying his daughter, Daughter
of women, Cleopatra (Daughter of the father) to Ptolemy V,
Antiochus had the idea her son and his grandson would become
king. He had hoped Cleopatra would help him, but his daughter
sided with the Egyptians against her father.
Face to the coastlands:
victory over Scopas Antiochus now turned to the growing Roman
threat and attempted to conquer Greece and equal the work of
Alexander the Great. The Roman consul, Lucius Scipio Asiaticus
defeated Antiochus III. In two battles, the first at
Thermopylae, north of Athens, in 191 B.C, and again at Magnesia
on the Maeander River in 189 B.C. This paved the way for
Roman expansion later into the region. Roman forced Antiochus
III to pay tribute for 12 years and turn over his son Antiochus
IV as a hostage.
Antiochus III turned back to his own land. Hoping to raise more money he
plundered a temple in
Elam and was
Philopator, the Raiser of Taxes
DA 11:20 "There
shall arise in his place one who imposes taxes on the glorious
kingdom; but within a few days he shall be destroyed, but not in
anger or in battle.
In his place:
In his place his son, Seleucus IV Philopator (187-175 B.C.)
took the throne. Forced to pay tribute to
Rome in the
amount of 1000 talents annually, he taxed all his domain. He
raised special taxes on the Jews administered by Heliodorus (2
Mac 3:7), Heliodorus plundered the
in Jerusalem. Selecus Philopater suddenly died after that, some
suspect he was poisoned by Heliodorus.
The Rise of
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
DA 11:21 "And
in his place shall arise a vile person, to whom they will not
give the honor of royalty; but he shall come in peaceably, and
seize the kingdom by intrigue.
DA 11:22 "With
the force of a flood they shall be swept away from before him
and be broken, and also the prince of the covenant.
DA 11:23 "And
after the league is made with him he shall act deceitfully, for
he shall come up and become strong with a small number of
In his place
After the battle of Magnesia, Antiochus IV was taken hostage
when his father Antiochus III lost to Scipio. In 175 B.C., his
brother, Seleucus IV Philopator, interveined and he was released
from Rome. He substituted his own son, Demetrius for his
brother Antiochus IV. While in Antiochus, IV was in
Seleucus was assassinated. Antiochus IV was referred to in
Daniel 8:9-14,23-25 as the “Little horn”.
Antiochus IV claimed to act on the behalf of his brother’s son,
Antiochus. Antiochus IV Ephiphanes was acting on his own behalf
and took the kingdom for himself.
Force of flood:
immediately set about securing his throne. He overthrow
Heliodorus in Jerusalem who was rumored to have killed his
Prince of the covenant:
had Onias, the High Priest killed in 172 B.C. Onias’ brother,
Jason and another rival, Menelaus of the tribe of Benjamin, both
wanted the office of High Priest. Both wanted to introduce Greek
culture and customs into Temple worship, Onias opposed the
Hellenization of the
and Jerusalem. His death allowed Antiochus IV to move forward
with establishing Greek culture in
In 171 B.C. Menelaus purchased the office of High Priest from “Zeus
Incarnate” Antiochus IV.
The death of Cleopatria his sister, who was queen in
a contest for power between her two sons, his nephews. Ptolemy
Philometor and Ptolemy Euergetes for control of
Antiochus made a league with Philometer, but only for his own
Growth in Power
DA 11:24 "He
shall enter peaceably, even into the richest places of the
province; and he shall do what his fathers have not done, nor
his forefathers: he shall disperse among them the plunder,
spoil, and riches; and he shall devise his plans against the
strongholds, but only for a time.
DA 11:25 "He
shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the
South with a great army. And the king of the South shall be
stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he
shall not stand, for they shall devise plans against him.
DA 11:26 "Yes,
those who eat of the portion of his delicacies shall destroy
him; his army shall be swept away, and many shall fall down
control Antiochus robed the richest places in his kingdom. He
used the money obtained to buy alliances and secure his kingdom
through loyalty. This was a practice his fathers and forefathers
had not done.
King of the
In 170 B.C. the
amateur regents Eulaeus and Lenaeus advised Ptolemy VI to
recover Syria. Antiochus IV heard about the attack and invaded
Egypt with a large army. Ptolemy VI made peace with his uncle,
in the meantime, the Alexandrians established his brother
Ptolemy VIII king causing the
to be weak.
DA 11:27 "Both
these kings' hearts shall be bent on evil, and they shall speak
lies at the same table; but it shall not prosper, for the end
will still be at the appointed time.
DA 11:28 "While
returning to his land with great riches, his heart shall be
moved against the holy covenant; so he shall do damage and
return to his own land.
The kings of
Antiochus made all sorts of agreements. Neither side meant to
keep their agreements, but they lied to forestall the real
sought greater riches and seeing the wealth of the Temple caused
him to try bring the treasures of the Temple under his control
by installing people loyal to him.
Persecutes the Jews
DA 11:29 "At
the appointed time he shall return and go toward the south; but
it shall not be like the former or the latter.
DA 11:30 "For
ships from Cyprus shall come against him; therefore he shall be
grieved, and return in rage against the holy covenant, and do
damage. So he shall return and show regard for those who forsake
the holy covenant.
DA 11:31 "And
forces shall be mustered by him, and they shall defile the
sanctuary fortress; then they shall take away the daily
sacrifices, and place there the abomination of desolation.
The time is established by God, He is in control of the
events taking place. The establishment of agreements between
the children of Cleopatria who started ruling together caused
Antiochus IV to invade again. Things were different this time.
This time however
Rome came to
the aid of Egypt. The Hebrew word here is
Kittiy is translated
Septuagint translates this word as Romans. In 168 B.C.
Antiochus IV was met by the Romans who ordered him to leave
Egypt immediately or be attacked by Rome. Roman consul, Gaius
Popillus Saenas drew a circle around Antiochus IV and demanded
a decision before he stepped out of the circle. Antiochus IV,
being a captive in
Rome from 189 to 175 B.C., knew the power of Roman might.
He retreated to his kingdom and planned on securing his borders
against Roman power.
Upset with his
humiliation by the Romans, Antiochus IV determined to bring
Jerusalem into his Hellenistic kingdom tried to destroy the
He along with the some Jews tried to turn the
Jerusalem into a Greek Temple. In 167 B.C. he detached a body
of troops to Jerusalem. They took the city by assault on the
Sabbath, slaughtered many people and sacked the city.
compelled under the penalty of death, “to depart from the laws
of their fathers, and cease living by the laws of God. Further,
the sactuary in Jerusalem was to be polluted and called ‘Jupiter
Olympius’” (I Macc. 1:30, 2 Macc 5;24)
Antiochus returning out of Egypt 16 for fear of the Romans, made
an expedition against the city Jerusalem; and when he was there,
in thehundred and forty-third year of the kingdom of the
Seleucidse, he took the
fighting, those of his own party opening the gates to him. And
when he had gotten possession of Jerusalem, he slew many of the
opposite party; and when he had plundered it of a great deal of
4. Now it
came to pass, after two years, in the hundred forty and fifth
year, on the
twenty-fifth day of that month which is by us called Chasleu,
and by the Macedonians Apelleus, in the hundred and fifty-third
olympiad, that the king came up to Jerusalem, and, pretending
possession of the city by treachery; at which time he spared not
so much as those that admitted him into it, on account of the
riches that lay in the temple; but, led by his covetous
inclination, (for he saw there was in
it a great
deal of gold, and many ornaments that had been dedicated to it
of very great value,) and in order to plunder its wealth, he
ventured to break the league he had made. So he left the temple
bare, and took away the
candlesticks, and the golden altar [of incense], and table [of
shew-bread], and the altar [of burnt-offering]; and did not
abstain from even the veils, which were made of fine linen and
scarlet. He also emptied it of its secret treasures, and left
nothing at all remaining; and by this means cast the Jews into
great lamentation, for he forbade them to offer
sacrifices which they used to offer to God, according to the
law. And when he had pillaged the whole city, some of the
inhabitants he slew, and some he carried captive, together with
their wives and children,
so that the
multitude of those captives that were taken alive amounted to
about ten thousand. He also burnt down the finest buildings; and
when he had overthrown the city walls, he built a citadel in the
lower part of the
city, 17 for
the place was high, and overlooked the temple; on which account
he fortified it with high walls and towers, and put into it a
garrison of Macedonians. However, in that citadel dwelt the
impious and wicked
part of the
[Jewish] multitude, from whom it proved that the citizens
suffered many and sore calamities. And when the king had built
an idol altar upon God’s altar, he slew swine upon it, and so
offered a sacrifice
according to the law,
Jewish religious worship in that country. He also compelled them
to forsake the worship which they paid their own God, and to
adore those whom he took to be gods; and made
temples, and raise idol altars in every city and village, and
offer swine upon them every day. He also commanded them not to
circumcise their sons, and threatened
Persecutions of Israel
DA 11:32 "Those
who do wickedly against the covenant he shall corrupt with
flattery; but the people who know their God shall be strong, and
carry out great exploits.
DA 11:33 "And
those of the people who understand shall instruct many; yet for
many days they shall fall by sword and flame, by captivity and
DA 11:34 "Now
when they fall, they shall be aided with a little help; but many
shall join with them by intrigue.
DA 11:35 "And
some of those of understanding shall fall, to refine them,
purify them, and make them white, until the time of the end;
because it is still for the appointed time.
Those who do wickedly:
became a test for those in Israel. Those who aligned themselves
with Antiochus showed their wickedness.
People who know
cause the faithful to make a stand in the days of Antiochus
IV. Matthias and his sons, known as the Maccabeans rebelled
against the policies of Antiochus and led a guerilla war against
the Greeks. They were able to reestablish the
practices. The Temple was rededicated in a service that is
known as Hannauch, when the oil only enough for one day lasted
People who understand: Daniel 11 draws a contrast between two groups of people,
those, who know God and understand and the wicked who act
against God. This line does not stop and the Maccabeans but will
continue to the end. This pattern was set in Daniel chapter 8,
where told about the coming “Abomination of desolation” by
Antiochus Epiphanes who would desolate the
Antiochus is merely a picture a future and greater desolater who is
coming in the end of Days.
Yet for many
The time of Antiochus set the example for future
we see the period of persecution is long and involves many days
and many people.
During this time gap many will make the choice of joining
those who understand or joining those who are in rebellion
of time is one of refining, where the people of God are made
white by the trials of life.
Until the time
of the end:
purification process will continue till the end. The time of the
end is a period covered from Daniel 11:36- to 12:2. At this
point Israel is reestablished after a long period of
desolations. This gap in time, is demonstrated in the Iron legs
and Iron/Clay feet, the break between Daniel 9:26, the killing
of Messiah the destruction of the Temple and Daniel 9;27 when
the Temple is back in service.
Still for the
God is in
charge of the pace of events
Introduction to Chapter 11 Part 2
Chapter 11 of Daniel is divided into two parts, the first part covers
from the Persian kingdom to the time of Antiochus IV
Epiphanes. Antiochus IV attempt to transform
Jerusalem into a Greek outpost of his kingdom, on the border
of advancing Roman power, caused the revolt of the Maccabees.
The abomination of desolation in Daniel 11:31, the desecration of
the Jewish Temple by Antiochus IV caused a reaction, known
as the Maccabean rebellion. Antiochus IV rededicated the
Jewish Temple as the a temple to Zeus, picturing himself as
the god on
Mattathias, a older priest, with five sons rejected Antiochus IV and led
guerilla war and rebellion against the Greek system. After
Mattathias died, his sons continued the struggle along with
those rejected the Greek pagan culture. This included a
group known as the Hasideans (The righteous ones), who
strictly followed the laws of Moses. Many died in the
struggle, but in December, 164 B.C., the Maccabeans were
able to capture the
rededicate it serve God. Antiochus IV, was in the east
conducting war against Elamites, he went insane on hearing
the success of the Jews against his armies in
Jerusalem and died. This rededication is known as Hanukkah,
(Dedication) called the is know as the feast of dedication
Daniel 11, verses 32 through 35 cover the time of the Maccabean rebellion
against the pagan Greek culture. This struggle between
those who know their God and those who do wickedly would
continue until the end of time. Antiochus IV, was a type of
the coming end-time, world leader. The Maccabean rebels
were a type, of the righteous Jews who would reject the end
time’s ruler and thus bring his “Last days” assault on
resulting in the coming of the Messiah.
those of the people who understand shall instruct many; yet
for many days they shall fall by sword and flame, by
captivity and plundering….. "And some of those of
understanding shall fall, to refine them, purify them, and
make them white, until the time of the end; because
it is still for the appointed time.
11:36 to 12:2, we emerge from out “Time tunnel” in the end
of days, with the final king of the gentile world in charge
and Israel in a very similar situation.
The King of the End Time
"Then the king shall do according to his own will: he shall
exalt and magnify himself above every god, shall speak
blasphemies against the God of gods, and shall prosper till
the wrath has been accomplished; for what has been
determined shall be done.
The king shall do:
here is the future king at the end of time. He is the last
king of the Gentile powers, the final king before the return
of Messiah. This king is ruler of the kingdom pictured as
the Iron and clay toes in Daniel 2:44.
"And in the
days of these kings the God of heaven will set up a kingdom
which shall never be destroyed; and the kingdom shall not be
left to other people; it shall break in pieces and consume
all these kingdoms, and it shall stand forever.
He is the little horn of Daniel 7 who uproots three of his
fellows,(Daniel 7:8,11, 19-21,23-26) the final earthly
kingdom before the
God. He persecutes the saints before the Messiah returns,
the son of man, who destroys his kingdom and
judges the horn.
"I was considering the horns, and there was another horn, a
little one, coming up among them, before whom three of the
first horns were plucked out by the roots. And there, in
this horn, were eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth
speaking pompous words.
24 The ten
horns are ten kings Who shall arise from this kingdom. And
another shall rise after them; He shall be different from
the first ones, And shall subdue three kings.
25 He shall
speak pompous words against the Most High, Shall persecute
the saints of the Most High, And shall intend to change
times and law. Then the saints shall be given into his hand
For a time and times and half a time.
This future king is also pictured in Daniel chapter 8, foreshadowed by
Antiochus IV Epiphanes by desecrating the future
23 "And in
the latter time of their kingdom, When the transgressors
have reached their fullness, A king shall arise, Having
fierce features, Who understands sinister schemes.
The End time’s king also referred to Daniel chapter 9 as the “Prince
to come”, a descendent of the armies, which destroy
Jerusalem and the Temple in A.D. 70. He guarantees Israel’s
right to rebuild the Third Temple with a seven-year
agreement, and breaks the agreement and desecrates the
Temple at the mid-point, after 3 ˝ years.
after the sixty-two weeks Messiah shall be cut off, but not
for Himself; And the people of the prince who is to come
Shall destroy the city and the sanctuary. The end of it
shall be with a flood, And till the end of the war
desolations are determined.
he shall confirm a covenant with many for one week; But
in the middle of the week He shall bring an end to sacrifice
and offering. And on the wing of abominations shall be one
who makes desolate, Even until the consummation, which is
determined, Is poured out on the desolate."
three competing views on this section of scripture (Daniel
That it is further historical or prophetic account
fulfilled in Antiochus IV Epiphanes.
That it is wishful thinking by the author of Daniel
which does not correspond to history.
That it is prophecy yet to be fulfilled.
view does not correspond with Antiochus IV’s historical
events. After the “Abomination of Desolation” (Daniel
11;31), Antiochus IV never defeated Egypt, because of Roman
power stopped him, let alone defeat Libyians or Ethiopians
The second, contradicts the liberal’s own position by saying, in the
first place the accuracy of the chapter is because it was
authored during the Maccabean period, denying its
supernatural nature. Yet the author was wrong on the last
part, because he did not have command of the facts.
The third view holds to the “futurist” view that the King is the last
king, the end time’s ruler. According to Jerome’s
commentary on Daniel, the Jews in Jerome’s day saw this
individual as a future ruler yet fulfilled. Jerome comments,
believe that this passage has reference to the Antichrist,
alleging that after the small help of Julian a king is going
to rise up who shall do according to his own will and shall
lift himself up against all that is called god, and shall
speak arrogant words against the God of gods. He shall act
in such a way as to sit in the Temple of God and shall make
himself out to be God, and his will shall be prospered until
the wrath of God is fulfilled, for in him the consummation
will take place. We, too, understand this to refer to the
What follows from verse 36 to 39 are descriptive qualifiers
about this end time ruler. First, we find he acts according
to his own will; he is the fulfillment of the
Nebuchadnezzar’s dream, humanism taken to its logical
conclusion. Man acting according to his own will, not the
will of God or any deity but his own.
Antiochus IV, this king will make himself the focus of the
world. This is in keeping with the nature of man.
Antiochus IV installed an image of Zeus in the
Temple of Jerusalem, which looked like himself. According to the book of
Revelation, this is exactly what this is exactly what the
Antichrist will do in the future in the Third Temple, except
rather then Zeus it will be himself as the image.
14 And he
deceives those who dwell on the earth by those signs which
he was granted to do in the sight of the beast, telling
those who dwell on the earth to make an image to the beast
who was wounded by the sword and lived.
15 He was
granted power to give breath to the image of the beast, that
the image of the beast should both speak and cause as many
as would not worship the image of the beast to be killed.
Blasphemies …God of gods:
Another characteristic of this man is his hostility to
the God of Israel, called the “God of gods”. The hostility
toward the God of Israel, reflected in Antiochus IV, is
ultimately fulfilled in the Antichrist.
Then he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to
blaspheme His name, His tabernacle, and those who dwell in
heaven. Revelation 13:6
have success for a period. The Hebrew word
means to rush; to advance, prosper, make progress, succeed,
be profitable. He will be unstoppable until the determined
time is complete.
Till the wrath:
of his prosperity is specifically stated as a period of 42
months, 1260 days, 3 ˝ years. He will persecute the and
prosper until period established by God runs its course.
He shall speak pompous words against the Most High, Shall
persecute the saints of the Most High, And shall intend to
change times and law. Then the saints shall be given into
his hand For a time and times and half a time. Daniel
This period of time can be found both in Daniel and Revelation, Daniel’s
70 weeks is divided into two 3 ˝-year periods. According to
the Jewish year these periods would each be 1260 days, 3 ˝
years, 42 months or a “time and times and half a time”.
Exalt and Magnify Himself above every God
Shall speak blasphemies against the God of gods
Shall prosper till the time of wrath has been
Shall not regard the god of his fathers
Shall not regard the desire of women
Shall not regard any god
Shall honor a god of fortresses
God has a
determined period, Gabriel informed Daniel three years
earlier, Seventy sevens or 490 years were determined
on his people and his city. At the conclusion of the last
half, of the last seven, the wrath will be complete. Daniel
11:36 to 12:2 deal with the last seven years of the Seventy
The Hebrew word means to cut, sharpen, decide, decree, determine, maim,
move, be decisive, be mutilated.
This period has been cut or divided on
the time of Daniel, at this point in history this divided or
cut time will be fulfilled.
"He shall regard neither the God of his fathers nor the
desire of women, nor regard any god; for he shall exalt
himself above them all.
"But in their place he shall honor a god of fortresses; and
a god which his fathers did not know he shall honor with
gold and silver, with precious stones and pleasant things.
"Thus he shall act against the strongest fortresses with a
foreign god, which he shall acknowledge, and advance its
glory; and he shall cause them to rule over many, and divide
the land for gain.
The God of
gives us insight into the religious background of the last
king. This statement, “God of his fathers” has been the
subject much debate. Based on this verse, some have
concluded the Antichrist will have a Jewish background.
However, the word for God here is
'elohiym not Jehovah. This means he will not believe in the God of
his descendents, he will exalt himself above all that is
these words, some have concluded the Antichrist will be
homosexual, because he will not have a desire for women.
Nevertheless, what this verse says he will not regard, what
is “Desired of women” not he will not “Desire Women”.
The desire of every Jewish woman was to be the mother of the coming
Messiah. The Messiah was promised to come from the seed of
Woman (Genesis 3; 15). This king would not regard the
Messiah, “The Desire of women”, nor would he regard the “God
of his fathers”. This verse hints the Antichrist, will have
Judea/Christian background. We know from Daniel
will be a descendent of the armies which destroyed the
and Jerusalem, a Roman. Meaning he could very well have a
Regardless of his religious background, he will not regard
any god, not the God of his fathers or any god.
above them all:
will be central to this new faith; he will be deified, much
like many of the rulers in history. Man’s ultimate
temptation is self deification.
God of fortresses:
37 informs us, this king will regard no god, and place
himself above all gods. What is meant here? The word
means place or means of safety, protection, refuge,
stronghold and is often translated strength. He will honor
in the place of god, strength or power. He will honor the
power of military might and strength.
Korea, which is communist and atheistic, is a good picture
of this new religion. The antichrist will be a materialist,
denying the spiritual realm and exalting “military might”
honor with gold:
form of materialism and power, will honored with the wealth
of nations. The final religious system on earth, will be
atheistic, militaristic and capitalistic. The chief focus
will be in the person of the final world leader.
on “Fortresses” and “himself” will be a foreign religion to
the background of his ancestry.
book of Revelation, we know Satan looses his place in Heaven
and is cast to the Earth. On Earth, he incarnates the
Antichrist, and assumes his power as head of his world
kingdom. Thus advancing the his own power and glory, he is
advancing the glory and power of Satan who will dwell in the
body of the Antichrist.
3 And I saw
one of his heads as if it had been mortally wounded, and his
deadly wound was healed. And all the world marveled and
followed the beast.
4 So they
worshiped the dragon who gave authority to the beast; and
they worshiped the beast, saying, "Who is like the beast?
Who is able to make war with him?"
He will reward those who are loyal to him, by the division of
property and goods.
World War Erupts
"At the time of the end the king of the South shall attack
him; and the king of the North shall come against him like a
whirlwind, with chariots, horsemen, and with many ships; and
he shall enter the countries, overwhelm them, and pass
"He shall also enter the Glorious Land, and many countries
shall be overthrown; but these shall escape from his hand:
Edom, Moab, and the prominent people of Ammon.
"He shall stretch out his hand against the countries, and
the land of Egypt shall not escape.
"He shall have power over the treasures of gold and silver,
and over all the precious things of Egypt; also the Libyans
and Ethiopians shall follow at his heels.
At the time
The angel now explains to Daniel a series of end time events
leading to the return of the Messiah. In verse 40, two
kings are mentioned, King of the north, king of
the south. Formerly, these kings were mentioned in the
context of the Seleucid and Ptolemy kingdoms.
They are now mentioned in relation to an end time conflict against the
king of verse 36. The time of conflict is prior to
mid-point of the tribulation period. We know from Daniel
12:1, Michael intervenes in
behalf at the mid-point of the tribulation period, and Satan
at that time cast from Heaven, incarnates the Antichrist,
and commits the “abomination of Desolation”. This battle is
prior to this event.
Some feel the battle referenced here is corresponds to Ezekiel 38-39, the
conflict with Gog and Magog. In Ezekiel 38-39, an end time
gathered out of the nations after a long period of absence.
"After many days you will be visited. In the latter years
you will come into the land of those brought back from the
sword and gathered from many people on the mountains of
which had long been desolate; they were brought out of the
nations, and now all of them dwell safely.
The nations to the north of
Russia and nations to the south of Israel, Libya, Ethiopia,
assault Israel, after the nations is established out of the
nations, in the latter years. The nations all include the
mix of nations including Iran, known as Persia in the days
of Daniel who are currently opposed to Israel.
Ethiopia, and Libya
are with them, all of them with shield and helmet;
6 "Gomer and
all its troops; the house of Togarmah from the far north
and all its troops-many people are with you.
In the day of this battle, people will examine what the prophets wrote
about it and will see it being fulfillment of the prophets
who foretold the day of its coming. The purpose of this
conflict is to bring glory to the God of Israel, by having
outmanned and out gunned
the Lord God: "Are you he of whom I have spoken in former
days by My servants the prophets of Israel, who prophesied
for years in those days that I would bring you against them?
This end time battle also precedes a seven-year period, in which
the remnants of this army for their own consumption.
"Then those who dwell in the cities of Israel will go out
and set on fire and burn the weapons, both the shields and
bucklers, the bows and arrows, the javelins and spears; and
they will make fires with them for seven years.
seven-year period corresponds with Daniel’s 70th
week. Israel will use the scrap steel and fuels left behind
by this destroyed army for seven years. Placing this
invasion prior to the covenant between the Antichrist and
Israel, which allows the Temple services to start. (Daniel
the King of the North and South can also refer to a
reconstituted army from those destroyed here in Ezekiel.
Antichrist’s power will be military, enforcing his will
through military might and intimidation. We see this in
worshiped the dragon who gave authority to the beast; and
they worshiped the beast, saying, "Who is like the beast?
Who is able to make war with him?"
overwhelm the nations with his power, rather then be
destroyed nations will submit to his power. He will be an
at the beginning. He allows the Temple to be rebuilt and
sacrifice to resume. This changes however 3 ˝ years later,
at that point he proclaims his deity to the world and
demands worship. Israel refuses, and he then attacks his
middle point of the tribulation, the Antichrist attacks
Jerusalem and the Israel, putting an end to sacrifice and
setting up an image in the
This period of time is one of the most referenced in all the
Bible. This period is covered in Revelation 11-13, Zechariah
14:1-4, Matthew 24:14-30.
Zechariah and Matthew we read about the conquest of
by the armies of the Antichrist.
day of the Lord is coming, And your spoil will be divided in
2 For I will
gather all the nations to battle against
The city shall be taken, The houses rifled, And the women
ravished. Half of the city shall go into captivity, But the
remnant of the people shall not be cut off from the city.
"Therefore when you see the 'abomination of desolation,'
spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place"
(whoever reads, let him understand),
16 "then let
those who are in Judea flee to the mountains.
17 "Let him
who is on the housetop not go down to take anything out of
unless those days were shortened, no flesh would be saved;
but for the elect's sake those days will be shortened.
These shall escape:
Three nations to the east of
noted for escaping the hand of the Antichrist. In
Zechariah, Matthew and Revelation scripture informs about
how God intervenes on Israel’s behalf at a point where all
seems lost. We read, the
Mount of Olives literally split open providing a route of escape for a
The nations of Moab, Edom and Ammon, namely Jordan, are
saved from the hand of the Antichrist at the midpoint.
And in that
day His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, Which faces
on the east. And the Mount of Olives shall be split in two,
From east to west, Making a very large valley; Half of the
mountain shall move toward the north And half of it toward
you shall flee through My mountain valley, For the
mountain valley shall reach to Azal. Yes, you shall flee As
you fled from the earthquake In the days of Uzziah king of
Judah. Thus the Lord my God will come, And all the saints
15 "Therefore when you see the 'abomination of desolation,'
spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place"
(whoever reads, let him understand),
let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains.
17 "Let him
who is on the housetop not go down to take anything out of
his house. 18 "And let him who is in the field not go back
to get his clothes.
According to Zechariah, 2/3 of the Jewish nation will die in the
tribulation period. Only 1/3 will survive and enter the
Millennium blessings of Messiah’s kingdom.
ZEC 13:9 I will bring the one-third through the fire, Will refine them
as silver is refined, And test them as gold is tested. They
will call on My name, And I will answer them. I will say,
'This is My people'; And each one will say, 'The Lord is my
In contrast to
and Edom, Egypt, Libya and Ethiopia, will be defeated by the
Antichrist and forced to submit to his new ideology.
"But news from the east and the north shall trouble him;
therefore he shall go out with great fury to destroy and
"And he shall plant the tents of his palace between the seas
and the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his
end, and no one will help him.
Euphrates river is dried, for the armies of East to
assemble. China as well as the rest of Asia, will not just
sit idle as the Antichrist sets about controlling the
world. According to Revelation 9:13-21, 16:12, 1/3 of
mankind dies by the approaching armies of the East.
Revelation 9:13-21 takes place in the first half of the
tribulation, and Revelation 16:12 at the battle of
Then the sixth angel poured out his bowl on the great river
Euphrates, and its water was dried up, so that the way of
the kings from the east might be prepared.
North: Gog and Magog which was destroyed in Ezekiel 38-39, is again
beginning to stir. In order for the Beast to gain control,
many will be destroyed. Within the first 3 ˝ years of the
tribulation period, according to Revelation 6:8 and 9:18,
47% of the Earth population dies from the judgments which
fall on earth.
Approaching the middle of the Tribulation period, the Beast
will infuriated and try to force the nations to submit to
glorious holy mountain:
Antichrist, in the end, will vanquish
and give Israel the option to renounce the God of Israel and
accept him as their god. Some will accept him, others will
reject him, much in the same way Israel could accept reject
Antiochus IV. Those who knew their God fled to the mountains
to conduct a guerilla war against the armies of the Greeks.
At the middle of the tribulation,
be faced with a similar dilemma. Those who listen to
warning of Jesus Christ in Matthew 24:15, and flee to the
mountains will survive the tribulation in God’s provision,
by fleeing into the mountains.
The Antichrist will meet his end at the return of Messiah,
the one like the son of
"You watched while a stone was cut out without hands, which
struck the image on its feet of iron and clay, and broke
them in pieces.
"I watched then because of the sound of the pompous words
which the horn was speaking; I watched till the beast was
slain, and its body destroyed and given to the burning