Introduction to Chapter 11  Part 1


Chapter Eleven continues where chapter 10 left off, the angel is still speaking with Daniel by the Tigress River.  Daniel is now ready to receive this message. 

Chapter 11 has two parts, the first part is Daniel 11:1-35 covers the time from Darius the Mede (chapter 6) until Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-164 B.C.).  The second part, Daniel 11:36 to 12:2 covers the last Gentile ruler, who is in power at the return of Messiah.

The period of time between the Antiochus IV and the rise of the last ruler is glossed over in Daniel 11:33-35.   Daniel 11:36 emerges with the last Gentile King to the coming of the Messiah, who is the stone which crushes the feet of the composite man in Daniel 2. 


Daniel chapter 11 gives a detailed history of the transitions of kingdoms from time of Darius until the time of Antiochus IV.  This detailed history has caused skeptics of the Bible to dismiss the accuracy as written after the fact.  Porphyry a third century pagan attacked the book of Daniel as a Maccabean forgery. Jerome responded with his own commentary on the book of Daniel, defending its 5th century  B.C. authorship.  The detailed history forces the reader to come to one of two conclusions, either the book of Daniel was supernaturally inspired by God, who revealed to Daniel the history of nations before the event, or Daniel was written by a lying imposter who claimed to be a 5th century B.C. prophet. 

Along these two lines has war waged around the book of Daniel, as skeptics of the Bible and the supernatural refuse to accept the possibility of events being revealed before their occurrence. 


Four Important Kings of Persia


DA 11:1  "Also in the first year of Darius the Mede, I, even I, stood up to confirm and strengthen him.)

DA 11:2  "And now I will tell you the truth: Behold, three more kings will arise in Persia, and the fourth shall be far richer than them all; by his strength, through his riches, he shall stir up all against the realm of Greece.

The first year: The angel continues his message to Daniel, the spiritual dimension to the sixth chapter is revealed.  The angel informs Daniel, that he strengthened Darius the Mede in the first year.  Daniel is now in the third year of Cyrus, 536 B.C., Daniel 6 took place in 539 B.C.  The other presidents and satraps tried to have Daniel killed by challenging his loyalty to the king through law established to destroy Daniel.  In Daniel 6, an angel appears which shuts the lions mouths.

22 "My God sent His angel and shut the lions' mouths, so that they have not hurt me, because I was found innocent before Him; and also, O king, I have done no wrong before you."

Daniel 6:22

Though its specualation, it seems likely the angel who shut the mouths of the lions is this very angel talking to Daniel.  He along with Michael stand watch over the children of Israel.  The enemies of God tried to destroy Daniel by turning Darius the Mede against him.

Daniel’s faithful life gave God the opportunity to demonstrate Himself to the whole Persian kingdom and Darius the Mede rule was strengthed. 

Three more kings: Daniel is now in the third year of Cyrus, 536 B.C., the angel tells Daniel three more kings are to rise in the Persian Kingdom.  Since Daniel is already in the reign of Cyrus, the following three kings are; Cambyses 529-522 B.C., Pseudo-Smerdis 522-521 B.C., Darius I Hystaspes (521-486 B.C. Ezra 5,6)

The fourth:  The greatest of the Persian kings was Xerxes I (486-465 B.C. Ezra 4:6).  Xerxes is the King identified in the book of Ester. Xerxes led a major expedition against Greece which had disastoreus results.  According to Daniel, Xerxes was the climax of Persian rulers, from him it was a downward spiral from which Persia never recovered.   Xerxes spent four years preparing for his attack on Greece, gathering hundreds of thousands of soldiers and vast riches.  Encyclopedia Britannica delineates the chronology of events,


Xerxes then turned his attention westward to Greece. He wintered in Sardis in 481–480 BC and thence led a combined land and sea invasion of Greece. Northern Greece fell to the invaders in the summer of 480, the Greek stand at Thermopylae in August of 480 came to nought, and the Persian land forces marched on Athens, taking and burning the Acropolis. But the Persian fleet lost the Battle of Salamis, and the impetus of the invasion was blunted. Xerxes, who had by then been away from Asia rather long for a king with such widespread responsibilities, returned home and left Mardonius in charge of further operations. The real end of the invasion came with the Battle of Plataea, the fall of Thebes (a stronghold of pro-Persian forces), and the Persian naval loss at Mycale in 479 BC. Of the three, the Persian loss at Plataea was perhaps the most decisive. Up until Mardonius was killed, the issue of thebattle was probably still in doubt, but, once leaderless, the less organized and less disciplined Persian forces collapsed. Time and again in later years this was to be the pattern in such encounters, for the Persians never solved the military problem posed by the disciplined Greek hoplites…….Harem intrigues, which were steadily to sap the strength and vitality of the Achaemenid Empire, led to the assassination of the Great King in 465 BC.[1]



The attack on Greece would stir in the hearts of Greek descendents seeking revenge for generations.  The attack on Athens and the burning of the Acropolis would be met by the greatest descendent Greece would ever know, Alexander the Great.


The Rise and Fall of Alexander the Great

DA 11:3  "Then a mighty king shall arise, who shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will.

DA 11:4  "And when he has arisen, his kingdom shall be broken up and divided toward the four winds of heaven, but not among his posterity nor according to his dominion with which he ruled; for his kingdom shall be uprooted, even for others besides these.

Mighty King: The attacks on Greece from Persia caused a sense of outrage that simmered in the hearts of Greeks. Alexander the Great’s father, Philip of Macedon, before his death had laid plans to attack Persia before his death. Alexander from his childhood was raised to hate the Persians for their attacks on Greece over the years.

In 10-years Alexander was able to destroy the Persian Empire and establish the Greek Empire which was even larger then Persia.  Only after his men refused to go any further did Alexander return to Babylon to solidify his conquests.  He planned to solidify his Empire, he encouraged his Macedonian soldiers to marry Persian women. Babylon was to be the capital of his Greek/Persian Empire.

His kingdom…broken: Before Alexander could follow through on his plans he died in Babylon at nearly the age of 33.  After his death his generals fought over his kingdom.  Four generals surfaced to take control of the kingdm.

Four winds:  The four winds signify all directions.  His kingdom was parceled off,

  After Alexander the Great died, his kingdom was fought over by his Generals for a period of 20 years.  Four generals emerged as head of his kingdom,

1. Cassander assumed rule over Macedonia and Greece;

2. Lysimacus took control of Thrace, Bithynia and most of Asia Minor;

3. Selecus took Syria and the lands to the east including Babylonia;

4. Ptolemy established rule over Egypt and possibly Palestine and Arabia Petraea.


His posterity:  Alexander had two known offspring.  Herecules, the son of Alexander from Barsina[2], and Alexander from Roxane. Roxane after Alexander’s death had Barsina and Hercules killed by Polysperchon.  Alexander, the son of Alexander the Great, was born after his death from Roxana. Roxana and her son were later murdered by Cassander, one of Alexander succeceeding generals.


 After Alexander's death (323) she had his second wife, Stateira (Barsine), killed, and she gave birth at Babylon to a son (Alexander IV), who was accepted by the Macedonian generals as joint king with the idiot Philip III Arrhidaeus (half brother of Alexander the Great). In 319 Roxana joined Alexander's mother, Olympias, in Epirus, but she was captured in 316 in Macedonia by Cassander, who later took the title of king of Macedonia. He imprisoned Roxana at Amphipolis and then executed her and her son.[3]

His kingdom was not left to his posterity but divided between his generals.


Ptolemy I Soter and Seleucus I Nicator


DA 11:5  "Also the king of the South shall become strong, as well as one of his princes; and he shall gain power over him and have dominion. His dominion shall be a great dominion.

King of the South:  Following the death of Alexander, there was a period of time, about 20 years, when the Diadochoi (Successors) fought for control of the empire.  The four successors, Cassander, Lysimacus, Selecus and Ptolemy divided the kingdom. The king of the South, Egypt, was Ptolemy I Soter (Savior) (323-285).  Ptolemy aided Selecus in regaining his kingdom from another general who tried to reestablish Alexander’s Empire under his own authority, Antigonus.

One of his princes:  Selecus I Nicator (312-281 B.C.) was ousted by Antigonus and fled to Ptolemy, there as one of Ptolemy’s generals, they were able to defeat Antigonus. Selecus regained his kingdom, Selecus according to Daniel would become King of the North. 

The final battle took place at Ipsus in Phrygia, 301 B.C.,

Ipsus, Phrygia, in 301 BC between two camps of the “successors” (diodochoi) of Alexander the Great, part of a struggle that accelerated the dismemberment of Alexander's empire begun after his death………..In 302 a coalition representing Lysimachus, king of Thrace, Seleucus I Nicator of Babylon, Ptolemy I Soter of Egypt, and Cassander of Macedonia moved against Antigonus I Monophthalmus, king in Asia Minor, and his son Demetrius I Poliorcetes. Although the combined strength of Seleucus and Lysimachus in troops was only slightly inferiorto the 70,000 foot soldiers and 10,000 horses of Antigonus, it was the allies' superiority in elephants that proved invaluable for victory. The elephants prevented Demetrius, who had pursued too far after defeating the opposing cavalry, from returning to rescue his father. Antigonus was killed, Demetrius fled, and Asia Minor was added to the dominions of Lysimachus.[4]

Gain power over him:  Selecus was able to secure the greater kingdom at the expense of Ptolemy who initially aided him.


Daughter or Egypt and the King of Syria


DA 11:6  "And at the end of some years they shall join forces, for the daughter of the king of the South shall go to the king of the North to make an agreement; but she shall not retain the power of her authority, and neither he nor his authority shall stand; but she shall be given up, with those who brought her, and with him who begot her, and with him who strengthened her in those times.

Join forces: The wars between the King of the North, Syria and the King of the South, Egypt continued off and on over territory, they became known as the “Syrian Wars”.  During the Second Syrian War (260-253 B.C.) Antiochus II Theos (261-246 B.C.) sued for peace by agreeing to marry Ptolemy II Philadelphius (285-246 B.C.) daughter Bernice. The problem was Antiochus II was already married to Laodiceia.  He therefore divorced Laodicea and married Bernice.

Daughter of the king of the South:  Bernice was the daughter of the king of the South. The marriage took place in 252 B.C. she conceived and had a son.  The son was to take possession of both the northern and southern kingdoms.  When Ptolemy II died, Antiochus II restored his wife Laodiceia who had then had Bernice, her infant son and Antiochus II Theos killed.

Given up: Laodiceia had her son Seleucus Calliniucs (247-226 B.C.) succeed her husband to the throne.


Ptolemy Euergetes and Seleucus Callinicus


DA 11:7  "But from a branch of her roots one shall arise in his place, who shall come with an army, enter the fortress of the king of the North, and deal with them and prevail.

DA 11:8  "And he shall also carry their gods captive to Egypt, with their princes and their precious articles of silver and gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the North.

DA 11:9  "Also the king of the North shall come to the kingdom of the king of the South, but shall return to his own land.

Branch of her roots: The brother of Bernice, who was killed by Laodiceia, Ptolemy III Euergetes (246-221 B.C.) avenged his sister’s death.  He attacked Seleucus Calliniucs and his mother Laodiceia who ruled from Syria.  He plundered Susa, Babylonia and went as far as the borders of India.

Jerome in his commentary provides a detailed description of  Ptolemy Euergetes conquest of the King of the North.


He came up with a great army and advanced into the province of the king of the North, that is Seleucus Callinicus, who together  with his mother Laodice was ruling in Syria, and abused them, and not only did he seize Syria, but also took Cilicia and the remoter regions beyond the Euphrates and nearly all of Asia as well.  And then, when he heard that a rebellion was afoot in Egypt, he ravaged the kingdom of Seleucus and carried off as booty forty thousand talents of Silver, and also precious vessels and images of the gods to the amount of two and half thousand. Among them were the same images which Cambyses had brought to Persia at the time when he conquered Egypt. The Egyptian people were indeed devoted to idolatry, for when he had brought back their gods to them after so many years, they called him Euergetes (Benefactor). And he himself retained possessions of Syria, but he handed over Cilicia to his friend, Antiochus, that he might govern it, and the provinces beyond the Euphrates he handed over to Xanthippus, another general.[5]


King of the North: Several years after the Egyptian invasion Seleucus Calliniucs was able to mount a return attack on Egypt in about 240 B.C.  Seleucus was defeated and returned to his own land and died in 226 B.C.


Seleucus and Antiochus III the Great vs. Ptolemy Philopater


DA 11:10  "However his sons shall stir up strife, and assemble a multitude of great forces; and one shall certainly come and overwhelm and pass through; then he shall return to his fortress and stir up strife.

DA 11:11  "And the king of the South shall be moved with rage, and go out and fight with him, with the king of the North, who shall muster a great multitude; but the multitude shall be given into the hand of his enemy.

DA 11:12  "When he has taken away the multitude, his heart will be lifted up; and he will cast down tens of thousands, but he will not prevail.

DA 11:13  "For the king of the North will return and muster a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come at the end of some years with a great army and much equipment.

DA 11:14  "Now in those times many shall rise up against the king of the South. Also, violent men of your people shall exalt themselves in fulfillment of the vision, but they shall fall.

DA 11:15  "So the king of the North shall come and build a siege mound, and take a fortified city; and the forces of the South shall not withstand him. Even his choice troops shall have no strength to resist.

DA 11:16  "But he who comes against him shall do according to his own will, and no one shall stand against him. He shall stand in the Glorious Land with destruction in his power.

DA 11:17  "He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do. And he shall give him the daughter of women to destroy it; but she shall not stand with him, or be for him.

DA 11:18  "After this he shall turn his face to the coastlands, and shall take many. But a ruler shall bring the reproach against them to an end; and with the reproach removed, he shall turn back on him.

DA 11:19  "Then he shall turn his face toward the fortress of his own land; but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found.

His sons:  Despite Selecus Callinicus failure to attack Egypt and win, his sons were able to do what he could not.  Seleucus III (226-223 B.C.) his son died in battle in Asia Minor. Antiochus III the Great (223-187 B.C.) succeeded where his brother and father failed.  Antiochus III began what became known as the Fourth Syrian War.

One shall: The “one” is Antiochus III who waged war against Egypt, the King of the South. 

The king of the South: The King of the South was Ptolemy IV Philopator (221-203 B.C.).  Antiochus III first took Lebanon in 219 B.C. and pushed south toward Egypt.  The Egyptian ruler assembled a large army in 217 B.C. and met Antiochus at Raphia, south of Gaza.  The Egyptian army, led by Ptolemy and his wife-sister, Arsinoe resulted in a complete victory for Egypt.  The armies both numbered about 70,000. 

The Multitude: Antiochus lost his entire army and fled into the desert. Egypt reclaimed southern Syria for the time.

The king of the North: Antiochus now turned his attention to the East part of his kingdom.  His campaigns against Bacteria and Parthia (Persia) gained him the title “The Great” (212 -204 B.C.) In 203 B.C., Ptolemy IV and Arsinoe had a mysterious death.  Their son, Ptolemy V (203-181 B.C.) succeeded them, he was seven when he took power. 

Antiochus saw his opportunity and assembled a greater army then his failed attack in 217 B.C. against the child king. The Jews rebelled against the Ptolemies, the “violent men of your people”. The gates of Jerusalem were opened for the armies of Antiochus who attacked the Egyptian garrison at Jerusalem. 

Scopas the Egyptian General was decisively defeated in 198 B.C. by Antiochus. The prospect of Roman intervention forced Antiochus III to make a treaty with Egypt. By marrying his daughter, Daughter of women, Cleopatra (Daughter of the father) to Ptolemy V, Antiochus had the idea her son and his grandson would become king.  He had hoped Cleopatra would help him, but his daughter sided with the Egyptians against her father.

Face to the coastlands:  After his victory over Scopas Antiochus now turned to the growing Roman threat and attempted to conquer Greece and equal the work of Alexander the Great. The Roman consul, Lucius Scipio Asiaticus defeated Antiochus III.  In two battles, the first at Thermopylae, north of Athens, in 191 B.C, and again at Magnesia on the Maeander River  in 189 B.C.   This paved the way for Roman expansion later into the region. Roman forced Antiochus III to pay tribute for 12 years and turn over his son Antiochus IV as a hostage.

Antiochus III turned back to his own land. Hoping to raise more money he plundered a temple in Elam and was killed.


Seleucus Philopator, the Raiser of Taxes



DA 11:20  "There shall arise in his place one who imposes taxes on the glorious kingdom; but within a few days he shall be destroyed, but not in anger or in battle.

In his place: In his place his son, Seleucus IV Philopator (187-175 B.C.) took the throne.  Forced to pay tribute to Rome in the amount of 1000 talents annually, he taxed all his domain.  He raised special taxes on the Jews administered by Heliodorus (2 Mac 3:7), Heliodorus plundered the Temple in Jerusalem.  Selecus Philopater suddenly died after that, some suspect he was poisoned by Heliodorus.


The Rise of Antiochus IV Epiphanes


DA 11:21  "And in his place shall arise a vile person, to whom they will not give the honor of royalty; but he shall come in peaceably, and seize the kingdom by intrigue.

DA 11:22  "With the force of a flood they shall be swept away from before him and be broken, and also the prince of the covenant.

DA 11:23  "And after the league is made with him he shall act deceitfully, for he shall come up and become strong with a small number of people.

In his place

Vile person:  After the battle of Magnesia, Antiochus IV was taken hostage to Rome when his father Antiochus III lost to Scipio.  In 175 B.C., his brother, Seleucus IV Philopator, interveined and he was released from Rome.   He substituted his own son, Demetrius for his brother Antiochus IV. While in Antiochus, IV was in Athens, Seleucus was assassinated.  Antiochus IV was referred to in Daniel 8:9-14,23-25 as the “Little horn”.

Peaceably: Antiochus IV claimed to act on the behalf of his brother’s son, Antiochus.  Antiochus IV Ephiphanes was acting on his own behalf and took the kingdom for himself.

Force of flood: He immediately set about securing his throne.  He overthrow Heliodorus in Jerusalem who was rumored to have killed his brother.  

Prince of the covenant:  Antiochus then had Onias, the High Priest killed in 172 B.C.  Onias’ brother, Jason and another rival, Menelaus of the tribe of Benjamin, both wanted the office of High Priest. Both wanted to introduce Greek culture and customs into Temple worship, Onias opposed the Hellenization of the Temple and Jerusalem.  His death allowed Antiochus IV to move forward with establishing Greek culture in Jerusalem

In 171 B.C. Menelaus purchased the office of High Priest from “Zeus Incarnate” Antiochus IV.   

The league:  The death of Cleopatria his sister, who was queen in Egypt, created a contest for power between her two sons, his nephews. Ptolemy Philometor and Ptolemy Euergetes for control of Egypt.  Antiochus made a league with Philometer, but only for his own gain.


Antiochus’ Growth in Power


DA 11:24  "He shall enter peaceably, even into the richest places of the province; and he shall do what his fathers have not done, nor his forefathers: he shall disperse among them the plunder, spoil, and riches; and he shall devise his plans against the strongholds, but only for a time.

DA 11:25  "He shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the South with a great army. And the king of the South shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand, for they shall devise plans against him.

DA 11:26  "Yes, those who eat of the portion of his delicacies shall destroy him; his army shall be swept away, and many shall fall down slain.

Enter peaceably: While in control Antiochus robed the richest places in his kingdom. He used the money obtained to buy alliances and secure his kingdom through loyalty. This was a practice his fathers and forefathers had not done.

King of the south: In 170 B.C. the amateur regents Eulaeus and Lenaeus advised Ptolemy VI to recover Syria.  Antiochus IV heard about the attack and invaded Egypt with a large army.  Ptolemy VI made peace with his uncle, in the meantime, the Alexandrians established his brother Ptolemy VIII king causing the Egyptian Kingdom to be weak. 


Wickedness of Antiochus


DA 11:27  "Both these kings' hearts shall be bent on evil, and they shall speak lies at the same table; but it shall not prosper, for the end will still be at the appointed time.

DA 11:28  "While returning to his land with great riches, his heart shall be moved against the holy covenant; so he shall do damage and return to his own land.

Both these kings:  The kings of Egypt and Antiochus made all sorts of agreements. Neither side meant to keep their agreements, but they lied to forestall the real plans.

Against the holy covenant: Antiochus sought greater riches and seeing the wealth of the Temple caused him to try bring the treasures of the Temple under his control by installing people loyal to him.


Antiochus Opposed by Rome Persecutes the Jews

DA 11:29  "At the appointed time he shall return and go toward the south; but it shall not be like the former or the latter.

DA 11:30  "For ships from Cyprus shall come against him; therefore he shall be grieved, and return in rage against the holy covenant, and do damage. So he shall return and show regard for those who forsake the holy covenant.

DA 11:31  "And forces shall be mustered by him, and they shall defile the sanctuary fortress; then they shall take away the daily sacrifices, and place there the abomination of desolation.

Appointed time: The time is established by God, He is in control of the events taking place.  The establishment of agreements between the children of Cleopatria who started ruling together caused Antiochus IV to invade again.  Things were different this time.

Ships of Cyprus: This time however Rome came to the aid of Egypt.  The Hebrew word here is yttk Kittiy is translated Cyprus.  The Septuagint translates this word as Romans.  In 168 B.C. Antiochus IV was met by the Romans who ordered him to leave Egypt immediately or be attacked by Rome.  Roman consul, Gaius Popillus Saenas drew a circle around  Antiochus IV and demanded a decision before he stepped out of the circle.  Antiochus IV, being a captive in Rome from 189 to 175 B.C., knew the power of Roman might.  He retreated to his kingdom and planned on securing his borders against Roman power.

Against the holy covenant:  Upset with his humiliation by the Romans, Antiochus IV determined to bring Jerusalem into his Hellenistic kingdom tried to destroy the Jewish faith.  

show regard:  He along with the some Jews tried to turn the Temple in Jerusalem into a Greek Temple.   In 167 B.C. he detached a body of troops to Jerusalem.  They took the city by assault on the Sabbath, slaughtered many people and sacked the city. 

Jews were compelled under the penalty of death, “to depart from the laws of their fathers, and cease living by the laws of God.  Further, the sactuary in Jerusalem was to be polluted and called ‘Jupiter Olympius’” (I Macc. 1:30, 2 Macc 5;24)

Abomination of desolation:  Josephus record the events

3. King Antiochus returning out of Egypt 16 for fear of the Romans, made an expedition against the city Jerusalem; and when he was there, in thehundred and forty-third year of the kingdom of the Seleucidse, he took the

city without fighting, those of his own party opening the gates to him. And when he had gotten possession of Jerusalem, he slew many of the opposite party; and when he had plundered it of a great deal of money, he

returned to Antioch.

4. Now it came to pass, after two years, in the hundred forty and fifth

year, on the twenty-fifth day of that month which is by us called Chasleu, and by the Macedonians Apelleus, in the hundred and fifty-third olympiad, that the king came up to Jerusalem, and, pretending peace, he

got possession of the city by treachery; at which time he spared not so much as those that admitted him into it, on account of the riches that lay in the temple; but, led by his covetous inclination, (for he saw there was in

it a great deal of gold, and many ornaments that had been dedicated to it of very great value,) and in order to plunder its wealth, he ventured to break the league he had made. So he left the temple bare, and took away the

golden candlesticks, and the golden altar [of incense], and table [of shew-bread], and the altar [of burnt-offering]; and did not abstain from even the veils, which were made of fine linen and scarlet. He also emptied it of its secret treasures, and left nothing at all remaining; and by this means cast the Jews into great lamentation, for he forbade them to offer

those daily sacrifices which they used to offer to God, according to the law. And when he had pillaged the whole city, some of the inhabitants he slew, and some he carried captive, together with their wives and children,

so that the multitude of those captives that were taken alive amounted to about ten thousand. He also burnt down the finest buildings; and when he had overthrown the city walls, he built a citadel in the lower part of the

city, 17 for the place was high, and overlooked the temple; on which account he fortified it with high walls and towers, and put into it a garrison of Macedonians. However, in that citadel dwelt the impious and wicked

part of the [Jewish] multitude, from whom it proved that the citizens suffered many and sore calamities. And when the king had built an idol altar upon God’s altar, he slew swine upon it, and so offered a sacrifice

neither according to the law, nor the Jewish religious worship in that country. He also compelled them to forsake the worship which they paid their own God, and to adore those whom he took to be gods; and made

them build temples, and raise idol altars in every city and village, and offer swine upon them every day. He also commanded them not to circumcise their sons, and threatened


Resulting Persecutions of Israel


DA 11:32  "Those who do wickedly against the covenant he shall corrupt with flattery; but the people who know their God shall be strong, and carry out great exploits.

DA 11:33  "And those of the people who understand shall instruct many; yet for many days they shall fall by sword and flame, by captivity and plundering.

DA 11:34  "Now when they fall, they shall be aided with a little help; but many shall join with them by intrigue.

DA 11:35  "And some of those of understanding shall fall, to refine them, purify them, and make them white, until the time of the end; because it is still for the appointed time.

Those who do wickedly:  The Temple became a test for those in Israel.  Those who aligned themselves with Antiochus showed their wickedness. 

People who know their god:  The wickedness cause the faithful to make a stand in the days of Antiochus  IV.  Matthias and his sons, known as the Maccabeans rebelled against the policies of Antiochus and led a guerilla war against the Greeks.  They were able to reestablish the Temple practices.  The Temple was rededicated in a service that is known as Hannauch, when the oil only enough for one day lasted eight.

People who understand:  Daniel 11 draws a contrast between two groups of people, those, who know God and understand and the wicked who act against God. This line does not stop and the Maccabeans but will continue to the end.   This pattern was set in Daniel chapter 8, where told about the coming “Abomination of desolation” by Antiochus Epiphanes who would desolate the Temple.

Antiochus is merely a picture a future and greater desolater who is coming in the end of Days.




Yet for many days:  The time of Antiochus set the example for future Israel,  Here we see the period of persecution is long and involves many days and many people. 

Many shall join:  During this time gap many will make the choice of joining those who understand or joining those who are in rebellion against God. 

Refine: This period of time is one of refining, where the people of God are made white by the trials of life.

Until the time of the end:  This purification process will continue till the end. The time of the end is a period covered from Daniel 11:36- to 12:2.  At this point Israel is reestablished after a long period of desolations.  This gap in time, is demonstrated in the Iron legs and Iron/Clay feet, the break between Daniel 9:26, the killing of Messiah the destruction of the Temple and Daniel 9;27 when the Temple is back in service.


First Period

Second Period

Daniel 2

Iron Legs

Iron/Clay Feet

Daniel 7



Daniel 8

Antiochus IV


Daniel 9

Temple destroyed

Temple Rebuilt


Still for the appointed time:  God is in charge of the pace of events



Introduction to Chapter 11 Part 2


Chapter 11 of Daniel is divided into two parts, the first part covers from the Persian kingdom to the time of Antiochus IV Epiphanes.  Antiochus IV attempt to transform Judah and Jerusalem into a Greek outpost of his kingdom, on the border of advancing Roman power, caused the revolt of the Maccabees.

The abomination of desolation in Daniel 11:31, the desecration of the Jewish Temple by Antiochus IV caused a reaction, known as the Maccabean rebellion.  Antiochus IV rededicated the Jewish Temple as the a temple to Zeus, picturing himself as the god on December 25th, 167 B.C.

Mattathias, a older priest, with five sons rejected Antiochus IV and led guerilla war and rebellion against the Greek system.  After Mattathias died, his sons continued the struggle along with those rejected the Greek pagan culture.  This included a group known as the  Hasideans (The righteous ones), who strictly followed the laws of Moses.  Many died in the struggle, but in December, 164 B.C., the Maccabeans were able to capture the Temple and rededicate it serve God.  Antiochus IV, was in the east conducting war against Elamites, he went insane on hearing the success of the Jews against his armies in Jerusalem and died.   This rededication is known as Hanukkah, (Dedication) called the is know as the feast of dedication in John 10:22.

Daniel 11, verses 32 through 35 cover the time of the Maccabean rebellion against the pagan Greek culture.  This struggle between those who know their God and those who do wickedly would continue until the end of time.  Antiochus IV, was a type of the coming end-time, world leader.  The Maccabean rebels were a type, of the righteous Jews who would reject the end time’s ruler and thus bring his “Last days” assault on Israel, resulting in the coming of the Messiah.


33 "And those of the people who understand shall instruct many; yet for many days they shall fall by sword and flame, by captivity and plundering…..  "And some of those of understanding shall fall, to refine them, purify them, and make them white, until the time of the end; because it is still for the appointed time.

Daniel 11:33,35


In Daniel 11:36 to 12:2, we emerge from out “Time tunnel” in the end of days, with the final king of the gentile world in charge and Israel in a very similar situation.

The King of the End Time


DA 11:36  "Then the king shall do according to his own will: he shall exalt and magnify himself above every god, shall speak blasphemies against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the wrath has been accomplished; for what has been determined shall be done.

The king shall do:  The king here is the future king at the end of time.  He is the last king of the Gentile powers, the final king before the return of Messiah.  This king is ruler of the kingdom pictured as the Iron and clay toes in Daniel 2:44.

"And in the days of these kings the God of heaven will set up a kingdom which shall never be destroyed; and the kingdom shall not be left to other people; it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand forever.

Daniel 2;44

He is the little horn of Daniel 7 who uproots three of his fellows,(Daniel 7:8,11, 19-21,23-26) the final earthly kingdom before the kingdom of God. He persecutes the saints before the Messiah returns, the son of man, who destroys his kingdom and establishes the kingdom of God, judges the horn.


"I was considering the horns, and there was another horn, a little one, coming up among them, before whom three of the first horns were plucked out by the roots. And there, in this horn, were eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking pompous words.

24 The ten horns are ten kings Who shall arise from this kingdom. And another shall rise after them; He shall be different from the first ones, And shall subdue three kings.

25 He shall speak pompous words against the Most High, Shall persecute the saints of the Most High, And shall intend to change times and law. Then the saints shall be given into his hand For a time and times and half a time.

Daniel 7:8


This future king is also pictured in Daniel chapter 8, foreshadowed by Antiochus IV Epiphanes by desecrating the future Temple, the Third Temple.


23 "And in the latter time of their kingdom, When the transgressors have reached their fullness, A king shall arise, Having fierce features, Who understands sinister schemes.  Daniel 8:23

The End time’s king also referred to Daniel chapter 9 as the “Prince to come”, a descendent of the armies, which destroy Jerusalem and the Temple in A.D. 70. He guarantees Israel’s right to rebuild the Third Temple with a seven-year agreement, and breaks the agreement and desecrates the Temple at the mid-point, after 3 ˝ years.


26 "And after the sixty-two weeks Messiah shall be cut off, but not for Himself; And the people of the prince who is to come Shall destroy the city and the sanctuary. The end of it shall be with a flood, And till the end of the war desolations are determined.

27 Then he shall confirm a covenant with many for one week; But in the middle of the week He shall bring an end to sacrifice and offering. And on the wing of abominations shall be one who makes desolate, Even until the consummation, which is determined, Is poured out on the desolate."

Daniel 9:26-27


There are three competing views on this section of scripture (Daniel 11:36-44). 

Ř          That it is further historical or prophetic account fulfilled in Antiochus IV Epiphanes.

Ř          That it is wishful thinking by the author of Daniel which does not correspond to history.

Ř          That it is prophecy yet to be fulfilled.

The first view does not correspond with Antiochus IV’s historical events.  After the “Abomination of Desolation” (Daniel 11;31), Antiochus IV never defeated Egypt, because of Roman power stopped him, let alone defeat Libyians or Ethiopians (Verse 44). 

The second, contradicts the liberal’s own position by saying, in the first place the accuracy of the chapter is because it was authored during the Maccabean period, denying its supernatural nature. Yet the author was wrong on the last part, because he did not have command of the facts.

The third view holds to the “futurist” view that the King is the last king, the end time’s ruler.  According to Jerome’s commentary on Daniel, the Jews in Jerome’s day saw this individual as a future ruler yet fulfilled. Jerome comments,


The Jews believe that this passage has reference to the Antichrist, alleging that after the small help of Julian a king is going to rise up who shall do according to his own will and shall  lift himself up against all that is called god, and shall speak arrogant words against the God of gods. He shall act in such a way as to sit in the Temple of God and shall make himself out to be God, and his will shall be prospered until the wrath of God is fulfilled, for in him the consummation will take place. We, too, understand this to refer to the Antichrist.[1]


According: What follows from verse 36 to 39 are descriptive qualifiers about this end time ruler.  First, we find he acts according to his own will; he is the fulfillment of the Nebuchadnezzar’s dream, humanism taken to its logical conclusion.  Man acting according to his own will, not the will of God or any deity but his own. 

Magnify himself:  Like Antiochus IV, this king will make himself the focus of the world.  This is in keeping with the nature of man.  Antiochus IV installed an image of Zeus in the Temple of Jerusalem, which looked like himself.  According to the book of Revelation, this is exactly what this is exactly what the Antichrist will do in the future in the Third Temple, except rather then Zeus it will be himself  as the image.


14 And he deceives those who dwell on the earth by those signs which he was granted to do in the sight of the beast, telling those who dwell on the earth to make an image to the beast who was wounded by the sword and lived.

15 He was granted power to give breath to the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak and cause as many as would not worship the image of the beast to be killed.

Revelation 13;14-14



Blasphemies …God of gods: Another characteristic of this man is his hostility to the God of Israel, called the “God of gods”. The hostility toward the God of Israel, reflected in Antiochus IV, is ultimately fulfilled in the Antichrist.


Then he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme His name, His tabernacle, and those who dwell in heaven. Revelation 13:6


Shall prosper:  He will have success for a period.  The Hebrew word xlc Tsalach, means to rush; to advance, prosper, make progress, succeed, be profitable.  He will be unstoppable until the determined time is complete. 

Till the wrath:  The period of his prosperity is specifically stated as a period of 42 months, 1260 days, 3 ˝ years.  He will persecute the and prosper until period established by God runs its course.

He shall speak pompous words against the Most High, Shall persecute the saints of the Most High, And shall intend to change times and law. Then the saints shall be given into his hand For a time and times and half a time.  Daniel 7:25

This period of time can be found both in Daniel and Revelation, Daniel’s 70 weeks is divided into two 3 ˝-year periods. According to the Jewish year these periods would each be 1260 days, 3 ˝ years, 42 months or a “time and times and half a time”.

Characteristics of the King

Exalt and Magnify Himself above every God

Shall speak blasphemies against the God of gods

Shall prosper till the time of wrath has been accomplished

Shall not regard the god of his fathers

Shall not regard the desire of women

Shall not regard any god

Shall honor a god of fortresses


 Accomplished: God has a determined period, Gabriel informed Daniel three years earlier, Seventy sevens or 490 years were determined on his people and his city.  At the conclusion of the last half, of the last seven, the wrath will be complete.  Daniel 11:36 to 12:2 deal with the last seven years of the Seventy weeks.

Determined: #rx Charats, The Hebrew word means to cut, sharpen, decide, decree, determine, maim, move, be decisive, be mutilatedThis period has been cut or divided on Israel from the time of Daniel, at this point in history this divided or cut time will be fulfilled.




The Final World Religion

DA 11:37  "He shall regard neither the God of his fathers nor the desire of women, nor regard any god; for he shall exalt himself above them all.

DA 11:38  "But in their place he shall honor a god of fortresses; and a god which his fathers did not know he shall honor with gold and silver, with precious stones and pleasant things.

DA 11:39  "Thus he shall act against the strongest fortresses with a foreign god, which he shall acknowledge, and advance its glory; and he shall cause them to rule over many, and divide the land for gain.

 The God of his fathers: Daniel gives us insight into the religious background of the last king.  This statement, “God of his fathers” has been the subject much debate.  Based on this verse, some have concluded the Antichrist will have a Jewish background. However, the word for God here is ~yhla 'elohiym not Jehovah.  This means he will not believe in the God of his descendents, he will exalt himself above all that is called god.

Desire of Women: Based on these words, some have concluded the Antichrist will be homosexual, because he will not have a desire for women.  Nevertheless, what this verse says he will not regard, what is “Desired of women” not he will not “Desire Women”. 

The desire of every Jewish woman was to be the mother of the coming Messiah.  The Messiah was promised to come from the seed of Woman (Genesis 3; 15). This king would not regard the Messiah, “The Desire of women”, nor would he regard the “God of his fathers”.  This verse hints the Antichrist, will have Judea/Christian background.   We know from Daniel 9:26, he will be a descendent of the armies which destroyed the Temple and Jerusalem, a Roman. Meaning he could very well have a Catholic background.

Any god:  Regardless of his religious background, he will not regard any god, not the God of his fathers or any god.

Himself above them all: He himself will be central to this new faith; he will be deified, much like many of the rulers in history.  Man’s ultimate temptation is self deification.

God of fortresses:  Since verse 37 informs us, this king will regard no god, and place himself above all gods. What is meant here? The word fortress, zw[m Ma`owz means place or means of safety, protection, refuge, stronghold and is often translated strength.  He will honor in the place of god, strength or power.  He will honor the power of military might and strength. 

North Korea, which is communist and atheistic, is a good picture of this new religion.  The antichrist will be a materialist, denying the spiritual realm and exalting “military might”

honor with gold:  This final form of materialism and power, will honored with the wealth of nations.  The final religious system on earth, will be atheistic, militaristic and capitalistic.  The chief focus will be in the person of the final world leader.

Foreign god:  The focus on “Fortresses” and “himself” will be a foreign religion to the background of his ancestry.  

Advance its glory: From the book of Revelation, we know Satan looses his place in Heaven and is cast to the Earth.  On Earth, he incarnates the Antichrist, and assumes his power as head of his world kingdom.  Thus advancing the his own power and glory, he is advancing the glory and power of Satan who will dwell in the body of the Antichrist.

3 And I saw one of his heads as if it had been mortally wounded, and his deadly wound was healed. And all the world marveled and followed the beast.

4 So they worshiped the dragon who gave authority to the beast; and they worshiped the beast, saying, "Who is like the beast? Who is able to make war with him?"

Revelation 13:3-4

Rule over many:  He will reward those who are loyal to him, by the division of property and goods.



The Final World War Erupts


DA 11:40  "At the time of the end the king of the South shall attack him; and the king of the North shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter the countries, overwhelm them, and pass through.

DA 11:41  "He shall also enter the Glorious Land, and many countries shall be overthrown; but these shall escape from his hand: Edom, Moab, and the prominent people of Ammon.

DA 11:42  "He shall stretch out his hand against the countries, and the land of Egypt shall not escape.

DA 11:43  "He shall have power over the treasures of gold and silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt; also the Libyans and Ethiopians shall follow at his heels.

At the time End:  The angel now explains to Daniel a series of end time events leading to the return of the Messiah.  In verse 40, two kings are mentioned, King of the north, king of the south.  Formerly, these kings were mentioned in the context of the Seleucid and Ptolemy kingdoms. 

They are now mentioned in relation to an end time conflict against the king of verse 36.  The time of conflict is prior to mid-point of the tribulation period.  We know from Daniel 12:1, Michael intervenes in Israel’s behalf at the mid-point of the tribulation period, and Satan at that time cast from Heaven, incarnates the Antichrist, and commits the “abomination of Desolation”.  This battle is prior to this event.

Some feel the battle referenced here is corresponds to Ezekiel 38-39, the conflict with Gog and Magog.  In Ezekiel 38-39, an end time battle, after Israel is gathered out of the nations after a long period of absence.

"After many days you will be visited. In the latter years you will come into the land of those brought back from the sword and gathered from many people on the mountains of Israel, which had long been desolate; they were brought out of the nations, and now all of them dwell safely.

Ezekiel 38:8

The nations to the north of Israel, Russia  and nations to the south of Israel, Libya, Ethiopia, assault Israel, after the nations is established out of the nations, in the latter years.   The nations all include the mix of nations including Iran, known as Persia in the days of Daniel who are currently opposed to Israel.

5 "Persia, Ethiopia, and Libya are with them, all of them with shield and helmet;

6 "Gomer and all its troops; the house of Togarmah from the far north and all its troops-many people are with you.

Ezekiel 38:5-6

In the day of this battle, people will examine what the prophets wrote about it and will see it being fulfillment of the prophets who foretold the day of its coming.  The purpose of this conflict is to bring glory to the God of Israel, by having outmanned and out gunned Israel, the victor.

'Thus says the Lord God: "Are you he of whom I have spoken in former days by My servants the prophets of Israel, who prophesied for years in those days that I would bring you against them?

Ezekiel 38:17


This end time battle also precedes a seven-year period, in which Israel uses the remnants of this army for their own consumption. 

"Then those who dwell in the cities of Israel will go out and set on fire and burn the weapons, both the shields and bucklers, the bows and arrows, the javelins and spears; and they will make fires with them for seven years.

Ezekiel 39:9

The seven-year period corresponds with Daniel’s 70th week.  Israel will use the scrap steel and fuels left behind by this destroyed army for seven years.  Placing this invasion prior to the covenant between the Antichrist and Israel, which allows the Temple services to start. (Daniel 9:27)

This with the King of the North and South can also refer to a reconstituted army from those destroyed here in Ezekiel.

He shall:  The Antichrist’s power will be military, enforcing his will through military might and intimidation.  We see this in Revelation,

So they worshiped the dragon who gave authority to the beast; and they worshiped the beast, saying, "Who is like the beast? Who is able to make war with him?"

Revelation 13:8

He will overwhelm the nations with his power, rather then be destroyed nations will submit to his power. He will be an ally of Israel at the beginning. He allows the Temple to be rebuilt and sacrifice to resume. This changes however 3 ˝ years later, at that point he proclaims his deity to the world and demands worship.  Israel refuses, and he then attacks his former ally. 

Glorious Land:  At the middle point of the tribulation, the Antichrist attacks Jerusalem and the Israel, putting an end to sacrifice and setting up an image in the Temple. This period of time is one of the most referenced in all the Bible. This period is covered in Revelation 11-13, Zechariah 14:1-4, Matthew 24:14-30.

In Zechariah and Matthew we read about the conquest of Jerusalem by the armies of the Antichrist.


Behold, the day of the Lord is coming, And your spoil will be divided in your midst.

2 For I will gather all the nations to battle against Jerusalem; The city shall be taken, The houses rifled, And the women ravished. Half of the city shall go into captivity, But the remnant of the people shall not be cut off from the city.

Zechariah 14:1-2

15 "Therefore when you see the 'abomination of desolation,' spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place" (whoever reads, let him understand),

16 "then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains.

17 "Let him who is on the housetop not go down to take anything out of his house.

22"And unless those days were shortened, no flesh would be saved; but for the elect's sake those days will be shortened.

Matthew 24;15-17,22

These shall escape: Three nations to the east of Israel, are noted for escaping the hand of the Antichrist.  In Zechariah, Matthew and Revelation scripture informs about how God intervenes on Israel’s behalf at a point where all seems lost. We read, the Mount of Olives literally split open providing a route of escape for a portion of Israel.  The nations of Moab, Edom and Ammon, namely Jordan, are saved from the hand of the Antichrist at the midpoint.


And in that day His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, Which faces Jerusalem on the east. And the Mount of Olives shall be split in two, From east to west, Making a very large valley; Half of the mountain shall move toward the north And half of it toward the south.

5 Then you shall flee through My mountain valley, For the mountain valley shall reach to Azal. Yes, you shall flee As you fled from the earthquake In the days of Uzziah king of Judah. Thus the Lord my God will come, And all the saints with You.

Zechariah 14:4-5


 15  "Therefore when you see the 'abomination of desolation,' spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place" (whoever reads, let him understand),

:16  "then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains.

17  "Let him who is on the housetop not go down to take anything out of his house. 18  "And let him who is in the field not go back to get his clothes.

Matthew 24:15-18

According to Zechariah, 2/3 of the Jewish nation will die in the tribulation period. Only 1/3 will survive and enter the Millennium blessings of Messiah’s kingdom.


ZEC 13:9  I will bring the one-third through the fire, Will refine them as silver is refined, And test them as gold is tested. They will call on My name, And I will answer them. I will say, 'This is My people'; And each one will say, 'The Lord is my God.' "

Zechariah 13:9


Not escape: In contrast to Moab, Ammon and Edom, Egypt, Libya and Ethiopia, will be defeated by the Antichrist and forced to submit to his new ideology.


The Final Battles


DA 11:44  "But news from the east and the north shall trouble him; therefore he shall go out with great fury to destroy and annihilate many.

DA 11:45  "And he shall plant the tents of his palace between the seas and the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and no one will help him.

News from the east: The Euphrates river is dried, for the armies of East to assemble.  China as well as the rest of Asia, will not just sit idle as the Antichrist sets about controlling the world.  According to Revelation 9:13-21, 16:12, 1/3 of mankind dies by the approaching armies of the East. Revelation 9:13-21 takes place in the first half of the tribulation, and Revelation 16:12 at the battle of Armageddon.

Then the sixth angel poured out his bowl on the great river Euphrates, and its water was dried up, so that the way of the kings from the east might be prepared.

Revelation 16:12

North:  Gog and Magog which was destroyed in Ezekiel 38-39, is again beginning to stir.  In order for the Beast to gain control, many will be destroyed.  Within the first 3 ˝ years of the tribulation period, according to Revelation 6:8 and 9:18, 47% of the Earth population dies from the judgments which fall on earth.

Great fury: Approaching the middle of the Tribulation period, the Beast will infuriated and try to force the nations to submit to his power.


His tent

The glorious holy mountain:  The Antichrist, in the end, will vanquish Israel, and give Israel the option to renounce the God of Israel and accept him as their god. Some will accept him, others will reject him, much in the same way Israel could accept reject Antiochus IV. Those who knew their God fled to the mountains to conduct a guerilla war against the armies of the Greeks.

At the middle of the tribulation, Israel will be faced with a similar dilemma.  Those who listen to warning of Jesus Christ in Matthew 24:15, and flee to the mountains will survive the tribulation in God’s provision, by fleeing into the mountains.

His end:  The Antichrist will meet his end at the return of Messiah, the one like the son of Man.


"You watched while a stone was cut out without hands, which struck the image on its feet of iron and clay, and broke them in pieces.

Daniel 2:34


"I watched then because of the sound of the pompous words which the horn was speaking; I watched till the beast was slain, and its body destroyed and given to the burning flame.

Daniel 7:11


[1] Walvoord, Daniel the Key to Prophetic Revelation,  Pg. 270 Moody Publishing, 1971


[1] Encyclopedia Britannica 2004, Xerxes the 1 article

[2] Barsina was the daughter of Darius III the last Persian King.

[3] Encyclopedia Britannica 2004, Roxane article

[4] ibid, Ipsus Battle.

[5] Daniel, The Key to Prophetic Revelation,  John Walvoord, Pg. 260, Moody Press, Chicago, 1971