Chapter 9: The New Covenant
chapter 8, we see Jesus Christ who after the type of Melchizedek
is the High Priest of the New Covenant. Melchizedek, was a type
of Christ, a foreshadowing, preparing the way for the coming of the
Messiah who would be both Priest and King.
9, the author of Hebrews reveals how the Tabernacle a parable or symbol
only to be fulfilled in Christ.
1 Then indeed, even the
first covenant had ordinances of divine service and the
earthly sanctuary. 2 For a tabernacle was prepared: the
first part, in which was the lampstand, the table, and
the showbread, which is called the sanctuary; 3 and behind the
second veil, the part of the tabernacle which is called the
Holiest of All, 4 which had the golden censer and the ark
of the covenant overlaid on all sides with gold, in which were the
golden pot that had the manna, Aaron's rod that budded,
and the tablets of the covenant; 5 and above it were the
cherubim of glory overshadowing the mercy seat. Of these
things we cannot now speak in detail. 6 Now when these things had been
thus prepared, the priests always went into the first part of the
tabernacle, performing the services. 7 But into the second part the
high priest went alone once a year, not without blood, which he
offered for himself and for the people's sins committed in ignorance
Worship in the earth Tabernacle
Covenant, instituted on
was part of God’s divine plan.
The law accomplished
1. The law (First
Covenant) was illustration or shadow of the coming of Messiah, who would
fulfill the picture.
2. The Mosaic Law
demonstrated man’s inability to attain righteousness through
Now we know that whatever the law says, it says to those who are under
the law, that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become
guilty before God. 20 Therefore by the deeds of the law no flesh will be
justified in His sight, for by the law is the knowledge of sin.Romans
(ordinances) was the prescribed method of service to God. If man wanted
to approach God, he had to come to God by the “way” God provided. God’s
way demonstrated man’s hopelessness apart from God.
There were two types of earthly sanctuaries used by
First the Tabernacle which was erected after the Exodus in the
wilderness journey. (Exodus 25-35)
The Second was the
permanent Temple constructed on Mt. Moriah in Jerusalem, after the
prophet Gad instructed David to build an altar on the location. (2
Samuel 24:18-25) The Greek word for sanctuary is related to
the words for “Saint” and “Sanctify”, meaning to set apart. (a&gion
literally means “Tent” and is derived from meaning
same word is used in John 1:14 to describe Christ incarnation into the
world and his presence among mankind.And
the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the
glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth.
Tabernacle was made out of ram skins. The entrance to the Tabernacle
was from one opening, at the eastern end of the goat haired curtain
perimeter. Two compartments were in the Tabernacle. The Holy Place
which, the priests were allowed and the Most Holy ( Holy of
Holies) where only the High Priest was allowed once per year, on
the day of atonement (Leviticus 16). The whole Tabernacle with both
compartments was 30 cubits long and 10 cubits wide. The
was 20 cubits and the Most Holy place was 10 cubits by 10 cubits.
area is the “Holy Place” and measured 20 cubits long by 10 cubits wide
(30 feet by 15 feet). Only the Levitical priests (Descendents of Aaron),
were allowed to enter. Within this area, stood the Lampstand, The
Table of Bread, and the Altar of Incense.
(Exodus 25; 31-37)
This was the only light in the Tabernacle, and was made of pure gold.
The light was fed by pure beaten olive oil.
(Exodus 25:23-29, 38:10-16)The Table was 2 cubits wide and 1
½ cubits high (3 feet by 2 feet) The table was made out of Acacia wood
and overlaid with gold. The Table held 12 loves of bread known as the
Showbread or “Bread of presence”. This bread, made without yeast,
was placed on the table every Sabbath and eaten by the priests at the
following Sabbath. (Leviticus 24:5-9)
The Altar of Incense
was also in the area known as the
before the entrance to the “Holy of Holies”.
The Holy of Holies
The Holy place was
separated from the Most Holy place by this second veil. In the second
compartment, the “Arc of the Covenant” rested. Only once a year could
the High Priest enter behind the veil, on the “Day of Atonement”.
The Holiest of All:
Holy, The “Arc of the Covenant” was kept apart from Israel in this
The Golden Censor
mentioned here is not the “Altar of Incense”. The altar was located in
the Holy place. The Censor here was a handheld golden censor, which the
High Priest on the Day of Atonement would take behind the veil with him.
(Leviticus 16:12-13, I Kings 7:50). The incense symbolized the prayers
of God’s people being carried behind the veil, by the High Priest. This
would be fulfilled in the Messiah, Jesus Christ, who would carry the
prayers of His people, behind the veil separating man and God.
Arc of the Covenant:
This was the gold covered box made of acacia wood, 2.5 cubits
by 1.5 cubits (3.75 feet by 2.25 feet) which held the Golden Pot
of Manna, and Aarons Rod and the Tablets of the
Covenant (Ten Commandments).
Each of these items was
a picture of Christ.
Christ referred to himself as the “Bread of Life” which came down from
heaven. (John 6:31-37)
Was a dead almond branch, which came back to life and yielded seeds with
the power of the Lord. Christ died, and he was brought back to life, and
yielded seeds, the saved. The dead branch brought back to life was a
picture of the resurrection and fruit it would bear. (Numbers 17:8)
Tablets of the
Covenant: The Word of God, Christ is the Word of God, (John 1:1-3,
Revelation 19:13) The Word became flesh
14 And the Word became
flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the
only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth. John 1:14
The cover of the Arc was also made of gold with the images of two
cherubim looking toward each other. (Exodus 25:17). This was an
illustration of the reality of Heaven. In Heaven, the Cherubim stand at
the throne of God, Both Ezekiel and John give us a detailed description
their view of God’s throne, and Cherubim that proclaim God’s holiness.
The cover of the Arc was merely a picture of the reality. (Ezekiel
1:4-28, Revelation 4)
Lord of hosts, God of Israel, the One who dwells between the cherubim,
You are God, You alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth. You have made
heaven and earth. Isaiah 37:16
Between the Cherubim
was the mercy seat, which was a picture of God’s throne. The Shekinah
Glory, “God’s Presence” would appear to the High Priest between the
Cherubim. The Hebrew word, Shekinah means dwelling, and is a root
for the word used in Tabernacle, (!kXm
the same word is used in the Greek for dwelling. (John 1:14).
"And there I
will meet with you, and I will speak with you from above the mercy seat,
from between the two cherubim which are on the ark of the Testimony,
about everything which I will give you in commandment to the children of
Israel. Exodus 25:22
Mercy Seat was a picture of the reality of Heaven, where God
ruled on his throne between the Cherubim. There in Heaven, Christ our
High Priest intercedes for us day and night, the Temple merely
illustrated the coming fulfillment of Messiah,
High Priest of the New Covenant.
The priests would go into the first compartment, the
and perform their services. Zechariah, the father of John the Baptist
was one of these priests, who performed his function as priest (John
The High Priest:
Entering the Most Holy was reserved for the High Priest, only
on the Day of Atonement he would be admitted into the Holy of Holies.
According to Jewish Tradition, he would enter the Holy of Holies four
times on the Day of Atonement.
1. To burn incense
2. Sprinkle the blood
of the bullock on the mercy seat. (Leviticus 16:14)
3. Then he would kill
the goat of the sin offering, and bring the blood within the veil
sprinkle it on the mercy seat.
4. Then he would enter
again and retrieve the golden censor.
Meaning Behind the Tabernacle
8 the Holy Spirit
indicating this, that the way into the Holiest of All was not yet
made manifest while the first tabernacle was still standing. 9 It was
symbolic for the present time in which both gifts and sacrifices
are offered which cannot make him who performed the service perfect in
regard to the conscience- 10 concerned only with foods and drinks,
various washings, and fleshly ordinances imposed until the time of
reformation. 11 But Christ came as High Priest of the
good things to come, with the greater and more perfect tabernacle not
made with hands, that is, not of this creation. 12 Not with the blood
of goats and calves, but with His own blood He entered the Most Holy
Place once for all, having obtained eternal redemption. 13 For if the
blood of bulls and goats and the ashes of a heifer, sprinkling
the unclean, sanctifies for the purifying of the flesh, 14 how much more
shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered
Himself without spot to God, cleanse your conscience from dead
works to serve the living God?
Parable of the
God’s Spirit was the source of direction of the first tabernacle.
Holiest of all: Actual access to Heaven was hidden from man, the Holy
Spirit through types and shadows illustrated the coming perfection.
The Greek word
means placing of one
thing by the side of another, juxtaposition, as of ships in battle. The
whole Tabernacle system is merely a parable, of Heaven’s reality and
God’s plan for man’s redemption. All sacrifices were only temporary,
they would need to offered again for the next offense.
The Greek word,
means making straight, restoring to its natural and normal condition
something which in some way protrudes or has got out of line. The
symbol of the tabernacle was only temporary, until the “New Covenant”
(Hebrews 8) was put in place.
Christ was the
fulfillment of the parable of the tabernacle. The earthly tabernacle was
only a picture of the Heavenly. The blood of bulls and goats was only
parable of the blood of Christ. Unlike the High Priest of the Old
Covenant, who enters the Holy of Holies on a yearly basis, Christ’s
blood atonement was a one-time event, “Once for all”. His blood
was sprinkled only once for the sins of all man. The Aaronic High
Priest demonstrated man’s inability to attain righteousness with God
Blood of Christ
Blood of bulls and
sacrifice and blood of animals purified, man from sin. The sacrifice was
a result of obedience coming from faith. The sacrifice of animals is
contrasted to the sacrifice of Christ. The writer asked a rhetorical
question, to demonstrate the contrast between the Old and New Covenant.
The imperfect sacrifice of animals looked forward to the perfect “One
Time” sacrifice of Christ.
Blood of Christ:
fulfilled the parable of the bulls and goats which merely illustrated
blood of animals could not accomplish, the Blood of Christ can. Through
his blood our conscience allows us to approach the Holy of Holies in
Heaven. We can now approach and serve God by the sacrifice of Christ.
This could refer to
works to attain righteousness, which were demonstrated as worthless
because of sin, or this may refer to sin which caused spiritual death.
And for this reason He is the Mediator of the new covenant, by
means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions under
the first covenant, that those who are called may receive the promise
of the eternal inheritance. 16 For where there is a testament,
there must also of necessity be the death of the testator. 17 For a
testament is in force after men are dead, since it has no power at all
while the testator lives. 18 Therefore not even the first covenant was
dedicated without blood. 19 For when Moses had spoken every
precept to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of
calves and goats, with water, scarlet wool, and hyssop, and sprinkled
both the book itself and all the people, 20 saying, "This is the blood
of the covenant which God has commanded you." 21 Then likewise he
sprinkled with blood both the tabernacle and all the vessels of the
ministry. 22 And according to the law almost all things are purified
with blood, and without shedding of blood there is no remission. 23
Therefore it was necessary that the copies of the things in the
heavens should be purified with these, but the heavenly things
themselves with better sacrifices than these. 24 For Christ has not
entered the holy places made with hands, which are copies of the true,
but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us; 25
not that He should offer Himself often, as the high priest enters the
Most Holy Place every year with blood of another-- 25 not that He should
offer Himself often, as the high priest enters the Most Holy Place every
year with blood of another 27 And as it is appointed for men to die
once, but after this the judgment, 28 so Christ was offered once
to bear the sins of many. To those who eagerly wait for Him He will
appear a second time, apart from sin, for salvation.
This word is translated from the Greek word,
meaning one who
intervenes between two .Jesus Christ is our Mediator or intercessor.
Isaiah foretold the reason the Messiah needed to be our intercessor.
There was no one else, who could fulfill the role required, a righteous
person to intercede on humanities behalf with the Lord.
He saw that there was no man, And wondered that there was no
intercessor; Therefore His own arm brought salvation for Him; And His
own righteousness, it sustained Him. 17 For He put on righteousness as a
breastplate, And a helmet of salvation on His head; He put on the
garments of vengeance for clothing, And was clad with zeal as a cloak.
greater covenant, the New Covenant, foretold by Jeremiah, Isaiah
and Ezekiel is fulfilled in Christ, the mediator or intercessor of this
greater covenant, pictured in the Old Covenant. (Jeremiah 31:31, Isaiah
I will make a covenant of peace with them, and it shall be an
everlasting covenant with them; I will establish them and multiply them,
and I will set My sanctuary in their midst forevermore. Ezekiel 37:26
Redemption: The death of Christ, paid for the transgressions under the
‘First Covenant”, which looked forward to the coming of Messiah, in type
of sacrifice. The blood of bulls and goats did not pay for sins, but
represented the shedding of Messiah’s blood, which was yet to be shed
for the sins of the world.
of eternal inheritance:
Those in the “First Covenant”, which covered began at Adam,
and lasted to Jesus Christ, looked forward to the promise of eternal
life. After Adam’s fall the skins of animals served as his covering,
his son Cain and Abel offered sacrifices, looking forward to the
shedding of Messiah’s blood. These like the Tabernacle were types and
shadows of the coming Redemption, which Messiah fulfilled.