people have had a visit by Jehovah’s Witnesses from the local
Kingdom Hall. Reactions vary, from rudeness, to hospitality.
Just who are these Witnesses? Are they Christian? Are they a
cult? To find these answers we need to examine the facts.
Today, the active number of Jehovah Witnesses is
6,429,000, and there are 95,919 congregations.
In 2003, 258,845 new Jehovah Witnesses were baptized. The
Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, the official name, claims to
be God’s prophet on Earth.
"The historical facts show that 1919 was the year when the
remnant on earth of the 144,000 Kingdom heirs began to be freed
from Great Babylon. In that year the message of God's
established kingdom began to be preached from house to house and
publicly by Jehovah's Christian witnesses in a fearless way.
This preaching of the Kingdom as established in 1914 was in
fulfillment of Jesus' prophecy in Matthew 24:14: 'This good news
of the kingdom will be preached in all the inhabited earth for a
witness to all the nations."
Babylon the Great Has Fallen!, 1963, p. 515.
We acknowledge as the visible organization of Jehovah on
earth the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, and recognize the
Society as the channel or instrument through which Jehovah and
Christ Jesus give instruction and meat in due season to the
household of faith.
April 15, 1939
How can somebody know if this organization is speaking for
God? The Jehovah Witnesses give us the answer to this very
“Reasonable persons agree that the only fair method is to
examine the evidence on both sides, both for and against a
disputed theory. That is how one arrives at the truth.”
Oct. 22, 1973, page 6)
“Can there be false religion? It is not a form of religious
persecution for anyone to say and to show that another religion
is false. It is not religious persecution for an informed
person to expose publicly a certain religion as being false,
thus allowing persons to see the difference between false
religion and true religion.” (Watchtower,
Nov. 15, 1963, page 688)
A Short history of the Jehovah Witnesses
The founder of the Jehovah Witnesses is Charles Taze Russell,
who was born in
on February 16, 1852. He was the son of Joseph L. and Anna
Eliza Russell, young Charles was raised a Congregationalist and
spent most of his early years in Allegheny and Pittsburgh
Pennsylvania. At the age of 16, in the year 1868 he found
himself losing faith in Churches, Church Creeds, the Bible and
At this point, a chance encounter with Jonas Wendell, a
Second Adventist preacher restored his faith.
Seemingly by accident, one evening I dropped into a dusty
dingy hall in Allegheny, Pa., where I heard religious services
were held, to see if the handful who met there had anything more
sensible to offer than the creeds of the great churches. There,
for the first time, I heard something of the view of the Second
Adventists, the preacher being Mr. Jonas Wendell.
Zion’s Watch Tower,
July 15, 1906
Page 3821 Society’s reprints
The Adventist movement and it teaching would influence the
young Russell in the formation of his doctrines and teachings.
The Adventist movement traces it roots back to William Miller a
Baptist lay preacher who in 1816 began preaching Christ would
return in 1843. His preaching attracted many from Baptist and
mainline churches, close to 50,000 put their trust in Miller’s
timing of prophetic events. When in March 1843 the Lord did not
appear, the date was recalculated to March 1844 and then to
October 1844. Miller and the Millerites were disappointed and a
shattered people. Dr. Josiah Litch, a Millerite leader in
Philadelphia wrote on October 24th,
“It is a cloudy and dark day here—the sheep are scattered—the
Lord has not come yet”
Most of his followers returned to their churches before his
death in 1849. Others kept the movement alive and formed into
several sects. These “Adventist” groups included the Advent
Christian Chruch, the Life and Advent Union, the Seventh-Day
Adventist, and others which split to form the
movement. David Reed, a former Jehovah’s Witnesses connects the
dots between Russell and the “Adventist” movement.
The end of the Civil War in 1865 found former Millerites
promoting new dates for the Second Coming. George Storrs of
Brooklyn, New York, who published the Bible Examiner and was
instrumental in forming the Life and Advent Union, focused his
followers’ hopes on 1870, while a group headed by N.H. Barbour
of Rochester, New York, looked to 1873 or 1874, and published
their calculations in Barbour’s periodical the Herald of the
Morning. ….Barbour and
among the Adventist leaders who shaped the thinking of a
newcomer to the religious scene, teenager Charles Taze Russell.
Charles continued to study under Adventist teachers for
sometime and at the age of 18 organized a Bible Study group.
Two Adventist he gave credit to guiding him into greener
pastures were Advent Christian Church minister George Stetson
and the Bible Examiner’s publisher George Storrs.
Thus I confess indebtedness to Adventists…And here I should
and do gratefully mention assistance rendered by Brothers George
Stetson and George Storrs, the later the editor of the The
Bible Examiner, both now deceased. The study of the Word
of God with these dear brethren led, step by step, into greener
Zion’s Watch Tower,
July 15, 1906,
Page 3821 Society’s reprints
Russell’s Bible study continued and in 1876, when he was 23,
his bible study group elected him “Pastor”. During this time,
Russell received a copy of the Herald of the Morning, N.
H. Barbour’s magazine that foretold the return of Christ in
1874. The year of 1874, having since past Russell noticed the
group believed Christ returned invisibly in 1874. The magazine
was failing, as many readers refused to accept the invisible
The summer of 1876, Russell became the financial backer of
the magazine. He was added to the masthead as assistant editor,
and he contributed articles and money to the publication.
Russell’s and Barbour’s groups became affiliates. Since the
Lord returned “invisibly” in 1874 they believed the saints would
be “Caught away bodily” three and half years later, to be with
the Lord in the spring of 1878. (Zion’s Watch Tower,
July 15, 1906,
Page 3823 Society’s reprints) When the “Catching away” (The
rapture) did not occur as expected Barbour and Russell split.
Barbour had “New Revelations” to account for the lack of the
rapture but Russell and others rejected his “Revelations” .
Zion’s Watch Tower Magazine
Russell would start his own magazine, His new magazine was
called Zion’s Watch Tower and Herald of Christ’s Presence,
and published its first issue in July, 1879. Russell no
longer considered himself a “Adventist” or “Millerite” but
considered their movements of God. He viewed these movements as
fulfillment of the “Midnight Cry” that the “Bridegroom cometh”
in the Parable of the Ten Virgins in Matthew 25:1-13. Russell
held that Christ came invisibly in 1874.
Barbour of Rochester, was we believe, the chosen vessel of
God through whom the “Midnight Cry” issued to the sleeping
virgins of Christ, announcing a discrepancy of thirty years in
some Miller’s calculations…and the Bridegroom due in that
morning in 1874…
If these movements were of God, and if Bros.
Miller and Barbour were his instruments, then that “Midnight
Cry” based on the prophetic and other statements and evidences,
was correct, and the “Bridegroom came” in 1874. We believe that
Cry was of God…
Zion’s Watch Tower, November 1881, Pages 288-289 Society’s
6,000 initial issues the publication has grown to 17.8 million
issues per month in 106 languages. In 1884, the “Pastor”
incorporated “Zion’s Watch Tower Tract Society” in Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania. In 1886, the Society published the first of seven
volumes entitled Studies in the Scriptures, originally
published as The Millennial Dawn. The seventh volume was
edited after his death in 1917. This volume, the Finished
Mystery caused a split in the organization. One group became
known as the “Jehovah’s Witnesses” under
Rutherford’s leadership and the other as “The Dawn Bible Students
In 1908, the
headquarters of the movement was changed to
at 17 Hicks Street and became known as the “Brooklyn
Tabernacle”. Today large tracts of land are owned by the
society, the society also owns are a large up-to-date printing
plant, which has produced billions of pieces of literature. All
employees in factory are voluntary and receive a nominal amount
of money per month for personal expenses. (In 1995 that amount
was filled with several legal entanglements including a divorce
from his wife Maria Ackley who left him after seventeen years of
In 1897, filing
for separation in 1903, the divorce revealed the financial
structure of Watch Tower as recorded in his obituary in the
Brooklyn Daily Eagle,
November 1, 1916.
There was much
litigation then that was quite undesirable from the “Pastor’s”
point of view regarding alimony for his wife, but it was settled
in 1909 by the payment of $6,036 to Mrs. Russell. The
litigation revealed that “Pastor” Russell’s activities in the
religious field were carried on through several subsidiary
societies and that all of the wealth hat flowed into him through
these societies was under the control of a holding company in
which the “Pastor” held $990 of the $1,000 capital and two of
his followers the other $10.
of Charles Taze Russell were central to the Watch Tower Society
and its membership grew under his direction. Russell commenting
on his Studies in the Scriptures published by the
If the six
volumes of Scripture Studies are practically the
Bible, topically arranged with Bible proof texts given, we might
not improperly name the volumes the Bible in an arranged
form. That is to say, they are not mere comments on the
Bible, but they are practically the Bible itself….
Furthermore, not only do we find that people cannot see the
divine plan in studying the Bible by itself, but we see, also,
that if anyone lays the Scripture Studies aside, even after he
has used them, after he has become familiar with the, after he
has read them for ten years—if he then lays them aside and
ignores them and goes to the Bible alone, though he understood
his Bible for ten years, our experience shows that within two
years he goes into darkness. On the other hand, if he had
merely read the Scripture Studies with their references, and had
not read a page fo the Bible, as such, he would be in the light
at the end of two years, because he would have the light of the
September 15, 1910, Page 298
1886, Russell published The Divine Plan of the Ages
projecting that 1914 would witness Armageddon and the dawn of
Christ’s thousand-year rule on earth. The date was later changed
1916 Russell died aboard a transcontinental train in
Texas. He was
and was succeeded by Judge Rutherford. In Russell’s cemetery,
where early Jehovah Witnesses are buried there stands granite
pyramid, measuring nine feet at its base with the name WATCH
TOWER BIBLE AND TRACT SOCIETY with a Cross inside of a crown.
and wrote that the Great Pyramid of Gaza was designed by Jehovah
and was a blueprint to end-times chronology. This teaching was
held by the Jehovah Witnesses till November 15th 1928 when Judge Rutherford reversed the teaching calling it
Rutherford (November 1916-1942)
death, there was a contentious battle for control of the Watch
Tower Bible and Tract Society. Russell had prepared detailed
written instructions to distribute his authority with several
followers. Joseph F. Rutherford served as legal counsel for
Russell and the society. Rutherford ignored Russell’s
instruction and consolidated power under his authority.
Faith on the March, by A.H. Macmillan published in 1957 with
Watch Tower approval and still found in Kingdom Hall libraries
details the legal battle.
consolidated his power in the local congregations by sending
“Service directors” to each congregation to handle the
literature shipped from
Brooklyn. He began to increase their authority and decreased the
authority of locally elected elders. He aimed to set up an
organization ruled from the top, a theocratic organization with
him being “God’s mouthpiece”.
started to change doctrines taught by Russell, including the
name of the organization to Jehovah’s Witnesses from
International Bible Students Association.
Rutherford also denounced Russell’s “Pyramid” prophecies as an
attempt to find God’s will outside of the Scriptures (1929).
Rutherford credited the Pyramid to Satan rather then to Jehovah
God as Russell attributed it construction.
Many of the
followers left the organization as a result of this action, they
were later threatened by Rutherford to “suffer destruction” if
they did not repent and recognize Jehovah’s will as expressed
through the Society.
of the more embarrassing episodes of Rutherford’s tenure is
known as Beth Sarim. Rutherford, prophesied that Abraham and the
other prophets of Hebrews 11 would soon rise from the dead by
1925. Beginning in 1920, Rutherford declared,
"As we have heretofore stated, the great jubilee cycle is due
to begin in 1925. At that time the earthly phase of the kingdom
shall be recognized."
How would it
be recognized? What event would trigger the ushering in of the
kingdom? Rutherford explained,
"Therefore we may confidently expect that 1925 will mark the
return of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and the faithful prophets of
old, particularly those named by the Apostle in Hebrews chapter
eleven, to the condition of human perfection" (Millions Now
Living Will Never Die, pp. 89-90).
Tower members were excited. Jehovah Witnesses saw their
organization’s vindication in the eyes of the world. In 1925
when Abraham and the rest of the prophets did not come,
some of Rutherford's followers left. Still others believed, the
arrival, the Hebrews 11 prophets would be soon. Though it had
not occurred by 1929, it was still a topic of much excited
anticipation. Therefore, Rutherford gave instructions to build
them a house. In his book, Salvation,
Rutherford mentions this house and the purpose for building it.
"At San Diego,
California, there is a small piece of land, on which, in the
year 1929, there was built a house, which is called and known as
Beth Sarim. The Hebrew words Beth Sarim mean `House of
the Princes;' and the purpose of acquiring that property and
building the house was that there might be some tangible proof
that there are those on earth today who fully believe God and
Christ Jesus and in His kingdom, and who believe that the
faithful men of old will soon be resurrected by the Lord, be
back on earth, and take charge of the visible affairs of earth"
the house now built, there was nothing to do but wait. In the
meantime, Judge Rutherford lived in this house while his wife
lived in another part of the country. Moreover, Witnesses waited
until 1942 when after the death of
Rutherford, the house was sold.
H. Knorr (1944-1977)
Rutherford, Nathan Knorr was immediately elected president and
served in the position until June of 1977. During his tenure,
the New World Translation was created which was the first
translation by the Watchtower Bible and Tract society.
time, the Watch Tower experienced explosive growth. When he
began in 1942 there were 98,076 active members by 1977 there
to happen in 1975, and young
men and women were discouraged from having children and pursuing
careers. Knorr was responsible for designing the door-to-door
evangelism system used today by the Watch Tower.
W. Franz ( 1977-1992)
death in June 1977, Fredreick W. Franz a long-time leader and
then vice-president was elected president.
death, Milton Henschel became the President over the Governing
away in March 2003.
Jehovah Witnesses connected with Charles Taze Russell?
many Jehovah’s Witnesses some of the teachings of Russell are an
embarrassment, and many Jehovah Witnesses repudiate him, denying
they follow his teachings.
“But who is
preaching the teachings of Pastor Russell? Certainly not
Jehovah’s Witnesses! They cannot be accused of following him,
for they neither quote him as an authority nor publish nor
distribute his writings”
This claim is
not borne out in fact. Jehovah Witnesses have quoted Russell
many times since his death in 1916. His is listed as the
founder of the Watchtower Organization on the official website’s
short history of the modern Jehovah’s Witnesses, says,
In the 1870 an
unassuming bible Study group started in
Charles T. Russell was the main mover of the group. On July
1879, the publication
Watch Tower was
issued…In 1884 it was incorporated with CT Russell as president.
1. In 1923,
seven years after the “Pastor’s” demise Judge Rutherford heir to
the Russellite throne, wrote a booklet some fifty-odd pages
long, entitled World Distress: Why and the Remedy
Russell is quoted 16 times
His book Studies in the Scriptures is
referred to 12 times
6 pages at the end of the book advertise Russell’s
2. In 1953,
the publication Jehovah’s Witnesses, Communists or Christians
Russell is quoted 5 times
His best known works, Plan of the Ages
(1886) and The Battle of Armageddon (1897)
Watchtower (October 1, 1953)
Quotes Studies in the Scriptures (4:554)
Witnesses in the Divine Purpose (1959) a society history
50 pages are devoted to Russell and his
Body of the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society controls their
followers through a tightly knit organizational structure that
is dictated from Brooklyn, New York. This group is made of the
“Heavenly Class” or “Anointed”
men (currently 12). Milton Henschel, the president presides over
are baptized into the society through immersion at the local
“Hall” level. New members must immediately begin training for
fieldwork by spending time with older members as they conduct
Publishers: Are Witnesses who commit 1200 hours per year in “Fieldwork”,
including door-to-door recruitment, sidewalk soliciting and book
studies with new prospective members.
Pioneers: Are those who dedicate a significantly greater amount of
time then 1200 hours
together are called congregations; their meeting place is
called a Kingdom Hall
leaders are called Elders or Overseers, the person
who heads the meeting is called Presiding Overseer. The
Service Overseer handles service business within the
congregation. Ministerial Servants are delegated
administrative responsibilities to the elders.
Circuits: Are 20 congregations supervised by a Circuit Overseer.
Districts: Are geographical collections of circuits (22 are in the
District Overseer organizes the annual district
convention. Here all new “Teachings” and “Rules” from the
Governing Body are announced to members and new publications are
Are collections of Districts
are Collections of Branches
Headquarters: Brooklyn Society Office
Memorial of Christ Death at Passover:
The only day of
the year which Jehovah’s Witnesses have ceremony. This event
held in large Auditoriums, requires all members be present along
with family, friends and prospective members. The elements of
the Lord’s Supper are passed through the crowd. Only the
“Anointed Class” is allowed to partake of the elements. No one
born after 1914 is eligible for the class.
5 meetings per
Week all members are expected to attend.
Public Talk is held each Sunday
Watchtower Study follows the Public Talk
Theocratic Ministry School
is a weekday evening meeting
Service Meeting follows the
Book Study: Each Witnesses is required to attend a “Book Study” in
addition to field work.
Society is absolute authority, The Governing body is vested with
all authority including to teach and understand the Bible. The
Watchtower is God’s “Visible organization” on Earth, no dissent
So Jehovah’s visible organization under Christ is a
channel for bringing he divine interpretation of his word to his
We acknowledge as the visible organization of
Jehovah on earth the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, and
recognize the Society as the channel or instrument through which
Jehovah and Christ Jesus give instruction and meat in due season
to the household of faith.
If we are to walk in the light of truth we must
recognize not only Jehovah God as our father but his
organization as our “Mother”
Make haste to identify the visible theocratic
organization of God that represents his king, Jesus Christ. It
is essential for life. Doing so be complete in accepting its
They(Witnesses) must adhere absolutely to the
decisions and scriptural understand of the Society because God
has given it this authority over his people.
Avoid independent thinking…questioning the counsel
that is provided by God’s visible organization…Fight against
To receive everlasting life in the earthly
Paradise we must
identify that organization and serve God as part of it.
choose to dissent are disfellowshipped. The congregation is to
have nothing to do with the individual. Those in the
congregregation are not to have any communication the member.
disfellowshipped person is cut off from the congregation, and
the congregation has nothing to do with him. Those in the
congregation will not extend the hand of fellowship to this one,
nor will they so much as say “Hello” or “Good-bye”…(The
congregation members) will not converse with such a one or show
him recognition in any way.
non-Witnesses are allowed to question their religion, but
Jehovah Witnesses are not?
not allowed to read any information this is contrary to the
Watchtower. This includes material from those who have been
disassociated Witnesses, disgruntled Witnesses or someone who
was never a Witnesses.
Have no dealings
with apostates…For example, what will you do If you receive a
letter or some literature, open it, and see right away that it
is from an apostate? Will curiosity cause you to read it, just
to see what he has to say? You may even reason: “It wont affect
me; I’m too strong in the truth. And besides, if we have the
truth, we have nothing to fear. The truth will stand the test”
In thinking this way, some have fed their minds upon apostate
reasoning and have fallen prey to serious questioning and doubt.
But those who
investigating the Jehovah Witnesses are told to question what
they believe, to investigate and search out God’s will.
We need to
not only what we personally believe but also what is taught by
any religious organization with which we may be associated. Are
its teachings in full harmony with God’s Word, or are they based
on the traditions of men? If we are lovers of the truth, there
is nothing to fear from such an examination. It would be the
sincere desire of every one of us to learn what God’s will is
for us, and then to do it.
understand the Bible apart from the Jehovah Witnesses’ Watch
Witnesses believe without the aid of their organization it is
impossible to understand the Bible or God’s will.
Rather we should seek for dependent Bible study,
rather than for independent Bible study.
He does not impart his holy spirit and
understanding and appreciation of his Word apart form his
The Bible is an organizational book and belongs to
the Christian congregation as a whole, not to individuals,
regardless of how sincerely they may believe that they can
interpret the bible. For this reason the bible cannot be
properly understood without Jehovah’s visible organization in
They (Questioners) say that it is sufficient to
read the Bible exclusively, either alone or in small groups at
home. But, strangely, through such “Bible reading” they have
reverted right back to the apostate doctrines that commentaries
by Christendom’s clergy were teaching 100 years ago.
Beliefs of Jehovah Witnesses
doctrine, in brief, is that there are three gods in one:
‘God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost,’
all three equal in power, substance, and eternity” (Let
God Be True, Brooklyn: Watchtower Bible and Tract
Society, 1946 ed., 100).
obvious conclusion is, therefore, that Satan is the
originator of the Trinity doctrine” (LGBT, 101).
“Sincere persons who want to know the true God and serve
Him find it a bit difficult to love and worship a
complicated, freakish-looking, three-headed God” (LGBT,
Trinity doctrine was not conceived by Jesus or the early
Christians” (LGBT, 111).
plain truth is that this is another of Satan’s attempts
to keep God-fearing persons from learning the truth of
Jehovah and his Son, Christ Jesus. No, there is no
Trinity” (LGBT, 111).
trying to reason out the Trinity teaching leads to
confusion of mind. So the Trinity teaching confuses the
meaning of John 1:1–2; it does not simplify it or make
it clear or easily understandable” (“The Word,” Who
Is He? According to John, 7).
Jehovah a Trinity—three persons in one God? No! Jehovah,
the Father, is “the only true God” (John 17:3; Mark
12:29). Jesus is His firstborn Son, and he is subject to
God (1 Cor. 11:3). The Father is greater than the Son
(John 14:28). The holy spirit is not a person; it is
God’s active force (Gen. 1:2; Acts 2:18) (What Does
God Require of Us?, Brooklyn: Watchtower Bible and
Tract Society, 1997, electronic version).
“Thus, neither the thirty-nine books of the Hebrew
Scriptures nor the canon of twenty-seven inspired books
of the Christian Greek Scriptures provide any clear
teaching of the Trinity. … Thus, the testimony of the
Bible and of history makes clear that the Trinity was
unknown throughout biblical times and for several
centuries thereafter” (Should You Believe in the
Trinity?, Brooklyn: Watchtower Bible and Tract
Society, 1997, electronic version).
Deity of Christ
true Scriptures speak of God’s Son, the Word, as ‘a
god.’ He is a ‘mighty god,’ but not the Almighty God,
who is Jehovah” (The Truth Shall Make You Free,
Brooklyn: Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, 1943, 47).
other words, he was the first and direct creation of
Jehovah God” (The Kingdom Is at Hand, Brooklyn:
Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, 1944, 46–47, 49).
Bible shows that there is only one God … greater than
His Son … and that the Son, as the Firstborn,
Only-begotten, and ‘the creation by God,’ had a
beginning. That the Father is greater and older than the
Son is reasonable, easy to understand, and is what the
Bible teaches” (From Paradise Lost to Paradise
Regained, Brooklyn: Watchtower Bible and Tract
Society, 1958, 164).
“Jesus was ‘the Son of God.’ Not God himself!” (“The
Word,” Who Is He?, 20).
very fact that he was sent proves he was not equal with
God but was less than God his Father” (TWWIH,
“Certainly the apostle John was not so unreasonable as
to say that someone (the Word) was with some other
individual (‘God’) and at the same time was that other
individual (‘God’)” (TWWIH, 53).
“Thus, Jesus had an existence in heaven before coming to
the earth. But was it as one of the persons in an
almighty, eternal triune Godhead? No, for the Bible
plainly states that in his prehuman existence, Jesus was
a created spirit being, just as angels were spirit
beings created by God. Neither the angels nor Jesus had
existed before their creation” (Should You Believe in
holy spirit is the invisible active force of Almighty
God that moves his servants to do his will” (Let God
Be True, 108).
for the ‘Holy Spirit,’ the so-called ‘third Person of
the Trinity,’ we have already seen that it is not a
person, but God’s active force” (The Truth That Leads
to Eternal Life, Brooklyn: Watchtower Bible and
Tract Society, 1968, 24).
Scriptures themselves unite to show that God’s holy
spirit is not a person but is God’s active force by
which he accomplishes his purpose and executes his will”
(Aid to Bible Understanding, Brooklyn: Watchtower
Bible and Tract Society, 1969, 1971, 1543).
Bible’s use of ‘holy spirit’ indicates that it is a
controlled force that Jehovah God uses to accomplish a
variety of his purposes. To a certain extent, it can be
likened to electricity, a force that can be adapted to
perform a great variety of operations” (Should You
Believe in the Trinity?).
the holy spirit is not a person and it is not part of a
Trinity. The holy spirit is God’s active force that he
uses to accomplish his will. It is not equal to God but
is always at his disposition and subordinate to him” (SYBITT?).
was a virgin. … When Joseph learned that Mary was going
to have a child, he did not want to take her as his
wife. But God’s angel … said: ‘That which has been
begotten in her is by holy spirit’. … He took Mary his
wife home. ‘But he had no relations with her until she
gave birth to a son’” (Matt.
1:20–25) (From Paradise Lost to Paradise Regained,
“Jesus was conceived by a sinless, perfect Father,
Jehovah God. … The perfect child Jesus did not get human
life from the sinner Adam, but received only a human
body through Adam’s descendant Mary. Jesus’ life came
from Jehovah God, the Holy One. … Jehovah took the
perfect life of his only-begotten Son and transferred it
from heaven to … the womb of the unmarried girl Mary. …
Thus God’s Son was conceived or given a start as a human
creature. It was a miracle. Under Jehovah’s holy power
the child Jesus, conceived in this way, grew in Mary’s
womb to the point of birth” (FPLTPR, 126–127).
“Jesus’ birth on earth was not an incarnation. … He
emptied himself of all things heavenly and spiritual,
and God’s almighty spirit transferred his Son’s life
down to the womb of the Jewish virgin of David’s
descent. By this miracle he was born a man. … He was not
a spirit-human hybrid, a man and at the same time a
spirit person. … He was flesh” (What Has
Religion Done for Mankind?, 231).
“While on earth, Jesus was a human, although a perfect
one because it was God who transferred the life-force of
Jesus to the womb of Mary” (Should You Believe in the
which is redeemed or bought back is what was lost,
namely, perfect human life, with its rights and earthly
prospects” (Let God Be True, 114).
“Jesus as the glorified High Priest, by presenting in
heaven this redemptive price, is in position to relieve
the believing ones of Adam’s descendants from the
inherited disability under which all are born” (LGBT,
human life that Jesus Christ laid down in sacrifice must
be exactly equal to that life which Adam forfeited for
all his offspring: it must be a perfect human life, no
more, no less. … This is just what Jesus gave … for men
of all kinds” (You May Survive Armageddon Into God’s
New World, Brooklyn: Watchtower Bible and Tract
Society, 1955, 39).
“Jesus, no more and no less than a perfect human, became
a ransom that compensated exactly for what Adam lost—the
right to perfect human life on earth. … The perfect
human life of Jesus was the ‘corresponding ransom’
required by divine justice—no more, no less. A basic
principle even of human justice is that the price paid
should fit the wrong committed. … So the ransom, to be
truly in line with God’s justice, had to be strictly an
equivalent—a perfect human, ‘the last Adam.’ Thus, when
God sent Jesus to earth as the ransom, he made Jesus to
be what would satisfy justice, not an incarnation, not a
god-man, but a perfect man, ‘lower than angels’” (Should
Salvation by Grace
“Immortality is a reward for faithfulness. It does not
come automatically to a human at birth” (Let God Be
“Those people of good will today who avail themselves of
the provision and who steadfastly abide in this
confidence will find Christ Jesus to be their
‘everlasting Father’” (Isaiah 9:6) (LGBT, 121).
have learned that a person could fall away and be judged
unfavorably either now or at Armageddon or during the
thousand years of Christ’s reign or at the end of the
final test … into everlasting destruction” (From
Paradise Lost to Paradise Regained, 241).
haste to identify the visible theocratic organization of
God that represents his king, Jesus Christ. It is
essential for life. Doing so, be complete in accepting
its every aspect” (The Watchtower,
October 1, 1967: 591).
receive everlasting life in the earthly Paradise we must
identify that organization and serve God as part of it”
February 15, 1983:
Resurrection of Christ
firstborn from the dead was raised from the grave, not a
human creature, but a spirit” (Let God Be True,
“Jehovah God raised him from the dead, not as a human
Son, but as a mighty immortal spirit Son. … For forty
days after that he materialized, as angels before him
had done, to show himself alive to his disciples” (LGBT,
“Jesus did not take his human body to heaven to be
forever a man in heaven. Had he done so, that would have
left him even lower than the angels. … God did not
purpose for Jesus to be humiliated thus forever by being
a fleshly man forever. No, but after he had sacrificed
his perfect manhood, God raised him to deathless life as
a glorious spirit creature” (LGBT, 41).
“Usually they could not at first tell it was Jesus, for
he appeared in different bodies. He appeared and
disappeared just as angels had done, because he was
resurrected as a spirit creature. Only because Thomas
would not believe did Jesus appear in a body like that
in which he had died” (From Paradise Lost to Paradise
“Having given up his flesh for the life of the world,
Christ could never take it again and become a man once
more. For that basic reason his return could never be in
the human body that he sacrificed once for all time” (You
Can Live Forever in Paradise on Earth, Brooklyn:
Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, 1982, 143).
Return of Christ and Human Government
“Christ Jesus returns, not again as a human, but as a
glorious spirit person” (Let God Be True, 196).
wrongfully expect a literal fulfillment of the symbolic
statements of the Bible. Such hope to see the glorified
Jesus coming seated on a white cloud where every human
eye will see him. … Since no earthly men have ever seen
the Father … neither will they see the glorified Son” (LGBT,
does not mean that he [Christ] is on the way or has
promised to come, but that he has already arrived and is
here” (LGBT, 198).
national flag is a symbol or image of the sovereign
power of its nation” (LGBT, 242).
such likenesses [symbols of a national power, eagle,
sun, lion, etc.] are forbidden by Exodus 20:2–6 [the
commandment against idolatry]” (LGBT, 242).
“Hence no witness of Jehovah, who ascribes salvation
only to Him, may salute any national emblem without
violating Jehovah’s commandment against idolatry as
stated in His Word” (LGBT, 243).
Existence of Hell and Eternal Punishment
“Those who have been taught by Christendom believe the
God-dishonoring doctrine of a fiery hell for tormenting
conscious human souls eternally” (Let God Be True,
is so plain that the Bible hell is mankind’s common
grave that even an honest little child can understand
it, but not the religious theologians” (LGBT,
is responsible for this God-defaming doctrine of a hell
of torment? The promulgator of it is Satan himself. His
purpose in introducing it has been to frighten the
people away from studying the Bible and to make them
hate God” (LGBT, 98).
“Imperfect man does not torture even a mad dog, but
kills it. And yet the clergymen attribute to God, who is
love, the wicked crime of torturing human creatures
merely because they had the misfortune to be born
sinners” (LGBT, 99).
doctrine of a burning hell where the wicked are tortured
eternally after death cannot be true, mainly for four
reasons: (1) Because it is wholly unscriptural; (2) it
is unreasonable; (3) it is contrary to God’s love; and
(4) it is repugnant to justice” (LGBT, 99).
is … a lie, which the Devil has had spread, that the
souls of the wicked are tormented in a hell or a
purgatory” (You Can Live, 89).
Soul, His Nature and Destiny
is a combination of two things, namely, the ‘dust of the
ground’ and ‘the breath of life.’ The combining of these
two things (or factors) produced a living soul or
creature called man” (Let God Be True, 68).
we see that the claim of religionists that man has an
immortal soul and therefore differs from the beast is
not scriptural” (LGBT, 68).
fact that the human soul is mortal can be amply proved
by a careful study of the Holy Scriptures. An immortal
soul cannot die, but God’s Word, at Ezekiel 18:4, says
concerning humans: ‘Behold all souls are mine. … The
soul that sinneth it shall die’” (LGBT, 69–70).
is clearly seen that even the man Christ Jesus was
mortal. He did not have an immortal soul: Jesus, the
human soul, died” (LGBT, 71).
it is seen that the serpent (the Devil) is the one that
originated the doctrine of the inherent immortality of
human souls” (LGBT, 74–75).
Scriptures show that the destiny of the sinful man is
death” (LGBT, 75).
Holy Scriptures alone offer real hope for those who do
seek Jehovah God and strive to follow his ways” (LGBT,
death man’s spirit, his life-force, which is sustained
by breathing, ‘goes out.’ It no longer exists. …
When they are dead, both humans and animals are in this
same state of complete unconsciousness. … That the soul
lives on after death is a lie started by the Devil” (You
Can Live, 77).
human soul ceases to exist at death. … Hell is mankind’s
common grave” (Jehovah’s Witnesses in the Twentieth
Century, electronic version).
Kingdom of Heaven
and how many are able to enter it [the Kingdom]? The
Revelation limits to 144,000 the number that become a
part of the Kingdom and stand on heavenly
God Be True, 136).
the capacity of priests and kings of God they reign a
thousand years with Christ Jesus” (LGBT, 137).
[Christ] went to prepare a heavenly place for his
associate heirs, ‘Christ’s body,’ for they too will be
invisible spirit creatures” (LGBT, 138).
it is to be a heavenly kingdom, who will be the subject
of its rule? In the invisible realm angelic hosts,
myriads of them, will serve as faithful messengers of
the King. And on earth the faithful children of the King
Christ Jesus, including faithful forefathers of his then
resurrected, will be ‘princes in all the earth’. … Then,
too, the ‘great crowd’ of his ‘other sheep’ … will
continue to ‘serve him day and night,’ and many of them
will also be ‘princes’. … They will ‘multiply and fill
the earth’ in righteousness and their children will
become obedient subjects of the King Christ Jesus. And
finally the ‘unrighteous’ ones that are to be
resurrected then, to prove their integrity, must
joyfully submit themselves to theocratic rule. … Those
who prove rebellious or who turn unfaithful during the
loosing of Satan at the end of Christ’s thousand-year
reign will be annihilated with Satan, the Devil” (LGBT,
Creator loved the new world so much that he gave his
only begotten Son to be its King” (LGBT, 143).
undefeatable purpose of Jehovah God to establish a
righteous kingdom in these last days was fulfilled in
the King Christ Jesus and flee, while there is still
time, to the Kingdom heights. … Time left is short, for
‘the kingdom of the heavens has drawn near’” (LGBT,
a little flock of 144,000 go to heaven and rule with
Christ. … The 144,000 are born again as spiritual sons
of God” (Jehovah’s Witnesses in the Twentieth Century,