What is the
Cause of the Universe?
For a finite
universe to exist there needs to be a cause. This question is
regardless of religion, it is a question of truth. Based on the
observable universe we know there was a time when the universe as we
know it did not exit. What brought the universe into existence? Did
the universe always exit? Did matter, space and time one day explode
into existence? Did matter always exist? These questions have
pondered scientist, philosophizer and theologian.
For those who are
seeking evidence for the existence of God. The creation of the
universe is one of the most powerful arguments. This is the
Cosmological argument for the existence of God.
In the cosmological
discussion the first question that needs to be answered is, “Did the
universe have a beginning?” What are the options?
If the universe
had a beginning, then it needs a first cause.
universe self-cause itself? In order to self-cause itself it
would have to not exist (to cause existence) and exist (in order
to be caused) at the same time. Therefore, this option is ruled
out because it violates the “Law of non-contradiction”.
universe always exist? As Carl Sagan believes, (“The Cosmos is
all that is or ever was or ever will be”). Naturalist believe
the universe either;
A. Came from nothing by nothing
B. Always existed.
Option A. is
impossible, it not possible for nothing to produce something. So the
option left is to accept that the universe always existed, option b.
Laws that affect
The First Law
(Law of Energy Conservation) states that energy can neither be
created nor destroyed.
The Second Law
(Law of Energy Decay) states that in a closed system, the amount
of usable energy in the universe is decreasing.” Entropy is the
level of disorder in a system.
A highly ordered system is in a low state of entropy. A
disordered system is in a higher state of entropy.
Is the Cosmos
running out of usable energy?
the universe as a gigantic heat engine with no external source of
energy input. This means that the total amount of usable energy in
the universe is fixed and is decreasing as time passes (nuclear
fusion is occurring throughout the universe).
This means that at
some point the universe was at highly ordered state. According to
the 2nd Law, the universe is expected to run out of
usable energy. Roy Peacock, an expert in thermodynamics, wrote “A
Brief History of Eternity” to show how discoveries in the universe
along with the laws of thermodynamics show the universe is finite.He
The Second Law of
thermodynamics is probably the most powerful piece of legislation in
the physical world. It ultimately describes every process we have
ever discovered: it is the final Court of Appeal in any dispute
relating to action and procedures, whether they are naturally
generated or man inspired. It draws the conclusion that in our
universe there is an overall reduction in order, a loss of available
energy that is measured as an increase in entropy. So the available
stock of order is being exhausted. Akin to the dying battery of a
flashlight, useful energy is being dissipated into entropy after
which none remains for use…For us to live in a universe in which the
Second Law of thermodynamics holds, then, it must be a universe that
has a starting point, a creation.
Is there Evidence
of a Finite Universe?
The Radiation Echo:
Arno Penzias and
Robert Wilson, two physicists at Bell Laboratories discovered the
earth is bathed in a faint glow of radiation. They were awarded the
Nobel Prize in 1978. Their data found this radiation was left over
from the initial explosion of the beginning of the universe,
commonly referred to as the Big Bang.
In November of
1989, a satellite named COBE, (Cosmic Background Explorer) was
successfully launched into space with instruments aboard capable of
measuring the radiation echo left behind from the Big Bang. In April
1992, the final summation of COBE’s data was made public and hailed
as unprecedented. Stephen Hawking, author of “A Brief History of
Time”, called the discovery, “The most important discovery of the
century, if not all time.”
affirms the universe had a beginning.
General Theory of Relativity predicted that the universe had a
beginning and is expanding in all directions. If we reversed the
theory, there would be a starting point to the universe. This
disturbed Einstein; his own theory demanded a starting point for the
universe. Robert Jastrow, founder of NASA’s Goddard Institute
for Space Studies and served for twenty years as its director wrote
about Einstein’s reaction in his realization of a finite universe:
Around this time,
signs of irritation began to appear among the scientists. Einstein
was the first to complain. He was disturbed by the idea of a
Universe that blows up, because it implied that the world had a
beginning. In a letter to de Sitter—discovered in a box of old
records in Leiden some years ago—Einstein wrote, “This circumstance
(of the expanding Universe irritates me,” and in another letter
about he expanding Universe, he said: To admit such possibilities
seems senseless.”….I suppose that beginning in time annoyed Einstein
because of its theological implications.
Based on Einstein’s
theory of general relativity, the universe is finite and expanding
in all directions. Since 1919 this theory has been verified numerous
experiments. Therefore, we can conclude the universe had a
beginning. It is finite.
What Caused the
If the universe had
beginning then it must have a cause. The Big Bang does not only
involve the start of matter but also space and time. Matter, space
and time are interdependent. The explosion of the universe was a
highly orchestrated cosmic explosion with just the right mixture of
gravity and explosive energy. John Polkinhorne, a theoretical
physicist, and a colleague of Stephen Hawking, writes:
In the early
expansion of the universe, there has to been a close balance between
the expansive energy (driving things apart) and the force of gravity
(pulling things together). If expansion dominated then matter would
fly apart too rapidly for condensation into galaxies and stars to
take place…(The possibility of our existence) requires a balance
between the effects of expansion and contraction which at a very
early epoch in the universe’s history (The Planck time) has to
differ from equality by not more than 1 in 1060 . The
numerate (mathematical) will marvel at such a degree of accuracy.
For the non-numerate, I will borrow an illustration from Paul Davies
of what that accuracy means. He points out that it is the same as
aiming at a target an inch wide on the other side of the observable
universe, twenty thousand million light years away, and hitting the
“If the existence
of the cosmos as a whole needs to be explained, and if it cannot be
explained by natural causes, Then we must look to the existence and
action of a supernatural cause for its explanation”
Since it is
impossible for nothing to produce something, something must have
always exited as the “First Cause” of the universe. Furthermore,
this First Cause must be eternal (outside of time, since time is
part of the finite universe) and powerful enough to account for the
origin and existence of the universe. This Cause must be
knowledgeable, powerful and eternal.
The Design Argument
beginning of the universe requires a “First Cause”, because the
universe has a starting point and is finite, the cause must be
greater then the effect. In the same light, we know the existence
of life also has a starting point. Matter is the building block of
life, without matter, we cannot have life in this physical universe,
as we know it. Therefore, the next question to be addressed is,
“What is the origin to Life?”
same “First Cause” that caused the universe to explode into
existence the “First Cause” of life as well? There are two
competing origin of life models; the macroevolutionary model and the
states that life was self-generated from nonliving (inorganic)
matter. Once the gap from non-life to life was bridged, the first
living cell began to evolve by random changes (mutations) in its
genetic information system, creating new characteristics that were
not in the original organism.
The design model
states that non-life never produces life and that the first life
forms were the direct result of super-intelligence.
How complex is a
When Darwin wrote
his theories of evolution in the mid-1800’s the cell was a mystery.
It was not until after WW II and the discovery electron microscopy,
that new sub-cellular structures were discovered. Michele J. Behe,
author of Darwin’s Black Box, writes;
This level of
discovery (of sub-cellular structures) began to allow biologist to
approach the greatest black box of all. The question of how life
works was not one Darwin or his contemporaries could answer. They
knew that eyes were for seeing—but how, exactly do they see? How
does the blood clot? How does the body fight disease? The complex
structures revealed by the electron microscope were themselves made
of smaller components. What were those components? What did they
look like? How did they work?
To understand the
complexity of a cell, Michael Denton, illustrates if a cell
magnified a 1000 million times until its 20 kilometers in diameter
what would we see. He writes,
What we would then
see would be an object of unparalleled complexity and adaptive
design. On the surface of the cell, we would see millions of
openings, like the portholes of a vast space ship, opening and
closing to allow a continual stream of materials to flow in and
out. If we were to enter one of these openings, we would find
ourselves in a world of supreme technology and bewildering
complexity. We would see endless highly organized corridors and
conduits branching in every direction away from the perimeter of the
cell, some leading to the central memory bank in the nucleus and
others to assembly plants and processing units. The nucleus itself
would be a vast spherical chamber more then a kilometer in diameter,
resembling a geodesic dome inside of which we could see, all neatly
stacked together in ordered arrays, and raw materials would shuttle
along all the manifold conduits in a highly ordered fashion to and
from various assembly plants in the outer regions of the cell… Is it
really credible that random processes could have constructed a
reality, the smallest element of which…a functional protein or
gene—is complex beyond our own creative capacities, a reality which
is the very antithesis of chance, which excels in every sense
anything produced by the intelligence of man
How could the first cell come into existence? Was it time,
chance and matter? On the other hand, was it the result of an
intelligent designer, a “First Cause” of life?
If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed,
which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive,
slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down.
his whole model of life falls apart. The cell is the smallest unit
of matter considered alive…less than a 1/1000th of an
inch in diameter.
In the center of the cell is the nucleolus composed of
deoxyribo-nucleic acid (DNA), protein and ribonucleic acid (RNA).
DNA combined with
proteins is organized into structural units called chromosomes,
which usually occur in identical pairs. The DNA molecule form the
infrastructure in each chromosome and is a single, very long, highly
coiled molecule subdivided into functional units called genes.
A gene occupies a certain place on the chromosome and contains the
coded instructions that determine the inheritance of a particular
characteristic or group passed from one generation to the next. The
Chromosomes contain the information needed to build an identical
working cell.Cells serve two functions to provide a framework to support
life and to make copies of themselves. They do this by having a
communication system between the nucleolus and the rest of the
cell. Inside the nucleolus is located all the information need to
function, replicate and repair the cell. Only now is this
incredibly complex system of cell communication becoming known.
In the same way a software program uses binary code,
combining 0 and 1 to communicate programs throughout a computer
system the cells uses the combination of four nitrogen-containing
bases to communicate inside the cell. (Adenine (A), Thymine (T),
Cytosine (C) and Guanine (G).Molecular biologists classify it as
equivalent to a written language but not by analogy.
The statistical structure of any printed language ranges
through letter and frequencies, diagrams, trigrams word frequencies,
etc., spelling rules, grammar and so forth and therefore can be
represented by a Markov process given the states of the system…..It
is important to understand that we are not reasoning by analogy.
The sequence hypothesis applies directly to the protein and the
genetic text as well as to written language and therefore the
treatment is mathematically identical.
The cell has a language of its own, fully equipped with rules
that govern how it communicates. This cellular communication system
has been shown to have a one-to-one correspondence with our own
The genetic code is composed of four letters (Nucleotides),
which are arranged into sixty-four words of three letters each
(triplets or codons). These words are organized in sequence to
produce sentences (Genes). Several related sentences are strung
together and perform as paragraphs (Operons). Tens of thousands of
paragraphs comprise chapters (Chromosomes), and a full set of
chapters contain all the necessary information for a readable book
possibility of life coming into existence on its own requires two
elements time and probability.
David Foster illustrates the problem with a deck of 52
Specificity is the measure of the improbability of a pattern
which actually occurs against a background of alternatives…Let us
imagine that there is a pack of 52 cards well shuffled and lying
face-downwards on a table. What are the chances of picking all the
cards up in a correct suit, sequence starting with the Ace of Spades
and working downwards and then through the other suits and finishing
with the Two of Clubs?
Well, the chance of picking up the first card correctly is 1
in 52, the second 1 in 51, the third card 1 in 50, the fourth card 1
in 49 and so forth. So the chance of picking up the whole pack
correctly is Factorial 52.
As one chance in… (About) 1068 this number is
approaching that of all the atoms in the universe.
Number of seconds back from now to the estimated
date of the Big Bang is 4 x 1017 (1018)
Number of atoms in the universe: 1080
Number of photons in the universe: 1088
Number of stars in the universe: 1022
Number of wavelengths of light to traverse the
universe 2 x 1033.16
The astronomers Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramsinghe placed
the probability that life would originate from non-life As one 10-40,000
and the probability of added complexity arising by mutations and
natural selection very near this figure.
believe that life could have come from non-life would require an
incredible amount of faith.
information content of the brain expressed in bits is probably
comparable to the total number of connections among the
neurons—about a hundred trillion, 1014, bits. If written
out in English, say, that information would fill some twenty million
volumes, as many as in the world largest libraries. The equivalent
of twenty million books is inside the heads of every one of us. The
brain is a very big place in a small space
When we examine
the complexity of life and the improbability of life developing from
non-life, we are forced to come to the conclusion that a
Super-Intelligent Designer is the source for life.